GUIDE TO TREES, SHRUBS & VINES - GO TO ORDERING PAGE FOR CURRENT AVAILABILITY
"Many Species also available in 1 gallon size"
Acer pensylvanicum (Striped Maple)
(Downy Serviceberry) Amorpha canescens (Lead Plant)
This small understory tree is also known as Moosewood because it is commonly browsed by deer and moose, but it will quickly re-sprout. The leaves are broad, 3 pointed and have shallow lobes .Male and female flowers appear on separate trees. The young bark has conspicuous vertical white and green stripes. Attracts birds and bees. The leaves have been used as a preservative to pack around apples and root vegetables in cold storage. Tolerant of deep shade.
Tree • 25-30 feet • Deep shade to part sun • Moist, cool, well-drained acidic soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Moist woods, deep valleys and northern slopes
Common throughout Southern Ontario as an understory species in swampy, wet woods. This small tree/tall shrub with crooked trunks will colonize to form thickets in cool, moist, shady environments. Stands of leafless Mountain Maple can be mistaken for some of the Dogwood species but the twigs of A. spicatum are coated with short grey hairs. The flowers and fruits grow in upright clusters. Produces brilliantly coloured leaves in the autumn. Shrub • 10-15 feet • Shade to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms June Habitat: Wet woods, swamps and thickets
This tall, clumping shrub has numerous white blossoms in spring, followed by small red berries in mid summer that are enjoyed by birds. Performs well on a dry site once established. Versatile in habitat and soil type. Shrub • 12-15 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Open fields, rocky slopes, woodland edges, sandy bluffs
A member of the Pea family, this shrub produces delicate compound grey-green leaves and lavender flower spikes appear in mid to late summer.
A drought tolerant, delicate looking but sturdy shrub. Amorpha adds nitrogen to the soil and blends well in the landscape with other prairie species such as Butterfly Milkweed, Nodding Onion, and Wild Quinine.
Shrub • 1-3 feet • Sun • Dry sandy soil • Blooms July to August
Habitat: Dry prairies & sandy open woods
Amorpha canescens (Lead Plant)
This low to medium height shrub produces white blooms in late spring, black-coloured berries in the summer, and amber foliage in the fall. It would provide a pleasing focal point in a bog garden. The fruit is eaten by birds in the fall. Shrub • 5-7 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to wet acidic soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Bogs, swamps, wet woods
Betula papyrifera (White Birch)
Also known as Paper Birch, this medium-sized tree is native to all regions of Canada. Flowers produce catkins which mature over the growing season. The oval, toothed leaves are smooth and turn an amber colour in the fall. The young bark is reddish-brown, thin and smooth and matures to white, and sheds easily. White Birch has been used for pulpwood, lumber and the bark for canoe building. Birch also has a history of use as a stomach and skin medicine.
Tree • 40-60 feet • Sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Forest edges, lakeshores, various habitats
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea)
A compact, attractive shrub for sunny dry areas. Clusters of small white flowers appear in mid summer and mature into three-lobed brown seed capsules. The leaves were once used as a substitute for tea during the American Revolution and the large red roots were used in making a dye for wool. Attracts Butterflies and other pollinators. Drought tolerant. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun • Sandy to average soil • Blooms July
Habitat: Open dry woods, prairies, barrens and hillsides
Celastrus scandens (American Bittersweet )
This woody vine, or twining shrub is in high demand by florists for its orange berries that appear in the fall and persist into the winter. Male & female plants are required for flowering, and the blooms are small and greenish. The berries are poisonous but the dried rootstock has been used medicinally as a treatment for skin cancer. Vine • Up to 24 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to dry soils • Blooms June. Habitat: Edges of woods, thickets & meadows
Celtis tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry)
A rare and protected species in Ontario, found naturally only in the Grand Bend Pinery on Lake Huron and the Pelee areas of Lake Erie. This member of the Elm family is a low, scraggy shrub with abundant, divergent short branches. Tiny white flowers appear in late spring. In the fall, small orangy-brown edible berries are produced. Nursery propogated only.
Shrub • 3-12 feet • Full sun to part shade • Sandy, well drained soil • Blooms May/June
Habitat: Sandy soils, dunes, dry, open woods rocky hills and barrens
(Virgins Bower, Old Man•s Beard)
Cornus alternifolia (Alternate-leaved Dogwood)
A valuable understorey shrub or
small tree found in deciduous woods with an attractive structure of horizontally
tiered branches. Clusters of creamy white flowers appear in June which produces
black coloured berries in late summer. Useful in woodland restoration projects
and also makes an attractive specimen in the home garden. The herb as been used
by First Nations to treat diseases of the eye and the wood for utility
implements. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 12-18 feet • Part sun to
part shade • Moist and variable soils • Blooms June
Habitat: Open woods, thickets,
ravines & slopes
This upright, spreading shrub is the latest blooming Dogwood in Ontario. It is somewhat larger than Red Osier Dogwood, and unusual in the blue colour of its fruits which are prized by songbirds and other wildlife. A good shrub for diversification in wetlands. Shrub • 7-9 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Marshes, wet woods, stream edges
Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)
A low, rhizomous shrubby groundcover of acidic woods and bogs. The leaves are arranged in whorl-like clusters. A solitary creamy-white bloom appears at the tip of the stems in spring which later produces red berries in late summer. The berries are eaten by birds and other wildlife in the fall. Makes an excellent ground cover under evergreen trees.
Shrub • 6-8 inches • Deep shade to part sun • Rich, moist, humusy, acidic soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Moist, acidic woods & bogs
Cornus drummondii (Rough-leaved Dogwood)
This erect, multi-branched shrub produces small creamy white flower clusters in late spring which produces white berries on purplish-red stalks in the fall. The orangey-amber coloured foliage in the fall also adds to the visual value. Would make an excellent specimen shrub in a garden. Relatively uncommon in Ontario. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 9-12 feet • Partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Woodland edges and streambanks
This medium height, erect and
multi-stemmed shrub will form colonies once established. The wood is gray to
light brown in colour. White flower clusters appear in early summer which
produce bunches of small white berries in late summer. Tolerant of much drier
soil than the more familiar and distinctive Red Osier Dogwood, C. racemosa is a valuable species to plant for slope stabilization and restoration
projects. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to
part shade • Moist to dry variable soils • Blooms June. Habitat: Thickets,
roadsides, fencerows, slopes & ridges
Cornus rugosa (Roundleaf Dogwood)
A broad-leaved, erect shrub for dry, gravelly places, particular calcareous soils. Clusters of small white flowers appear in June. In the fall pale blue to greenish white berries are produced on red stalks. The undersides of leaves are densely covered with wooly hairs and the foliage is colourful in the fall. Historically the bark has been used for medicinal purposes. Valuable for restoration plantings or as a landscaping specimen. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 3-10 feet • Partial shade • Moist or dry soil • Blooms late June
Habitat: Open woods, thickets and ravine slopes
This colonizing, thicket-forming shrub is commonly used for bioengineering and wetland projects. White flowers appear in June, later producing clusters of white berries in late summer. Excellent source of food for birds and the distinctive red branches are used extensively in decorating. Once used as an eye medicine and as a dye. Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Swamps, wetlands, edges of streams & wet meadows
This shrub provides interest throughout the growing season. Yellow catkins appear in early spring before the corrugated leaves emerge. The edible nuts ripen in late summer in clusters of 2-6, each enclosed by a pair of ragged-edged bracts. These nuts provide a food source for deer, squirrels, chipmunks, blue jays and other wildlife. Hazelnut grows well in poor soils, including gravel. Native people used the nuts as food, the bark for medicinal uses and as a black dye, and bundled the twigs for brooms and brushes. Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Thickets, edges of woods, roadsides and fencerows
An important species in ecological succession, Hawthorns will hybridize freely between species therefore making them difficult to identify decisively. This tall shrub/short tree produces branches that will sprawl horizontally and contain long thorns. White flowers appear in late spring which yield small, red or yellow •crabapple• like fruits in the fall. Birds rely on this species as a food source late in the season. Hawthorn has a long history of use for food, firewood and exhibits herbal properties to treat cardiac problems, skin disorders, women•s ailments, insomnia and as a tonic. Shrub/Tree • 16-24 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Thickets, hedgerows, roadsides & rocky ground.
Yellow, funnel-shaped flowers are borne in threes at the ends of spreading branches. Opposite leaves are egg-shaped, toothed. Low arching habit, excellent for landscaping. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Part Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Dry woods, thickets, hillsides, pastures
(Running Strawberry Bush)
This native Ontario trailing shrub will form a carpet in woodland gardens. Flowers are inconspicuous, but in the fall, orange-pink berries with scarlet seed capsules appear. A good ground cover shrub to provide greenery after spring ephemerals have vanished. Shrub • 8-12 inches • Shade • Rich, moist soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Rich, moist deciduous woods and ravines
A very hardy tree, for wet locations, with good fall colour. The single winged seeds mature in autumn and remain well into winter, although seed crops are variable with intervals of up to seven years. Seeds are eaten by grosbeaks and mice. Beavers and porcupines eat the bark, and moose and deer eat the twigs. Many native peoples considered the wood of black ash a charm against serpents. The legend was passed on to early pioneers who made cradles out of ash wood to guard their babies against snakes. Twigs and wood splints were woven into baskets, the inner bark used in a remedy for internal ailments, and wigwams were covered with the bark. Tree • 60-85 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Wet woods, swamps and river valleys
A fast growing tree, very tolerant of poor soils and pollution. Moderately shade tolerant. Salt intolerant. Provides fall colour and is a food source for wildlife. In the past, the seeds, leaves and bark have been used in medicine. Tree • To 80 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Moist to wet swamps, along river and stream banks
This towering member of the Pea family, rare in Ontario, has small leaflets on large compound leaves which provide dappled shade. Very large, multiple-branched thorns grow along the trunk and larger limbs. Male & female flowers occur on the same tree in early spring. Large flat seedpods are produced in the fall which provides food for mammals and birds. The wood is very heavy, strong and resistant to decay. Hedges of Gleditsia were planted by pioneer farmers to contain pastures. Tree • 60-75 feet • Full sun, intollerant of shade • Most moist soils, except dry sand • Blooms May Habitat: Moist, rich bottomlands and open woods
Hamamelis virginiana (Witch-hazel)
A large, spreading shrub common along deciduous woodland edges, slopes and ravines. It prefers sandy, rocky or gravelly soil. The small yellow flowers appear very late in the season after the leaves have fallen and don•t produce mature seed until the following year. Commonly planted as a large landscaping shrub. Branches can be used in late fall floral displays. Witch-hazel has been effective as an astringent, hemostatic, to treat skin irritations and as a tonic. Shrub • 12-15 feet • Part sun & shade • Dry to moist soil • Blooms October to November Habitat: Open woods, edges, slopes & ravines
Hypericum kalmianum (Kalm’s St.John’s-wort)
A smaller shrub than H. prolificum but with much the same structure. Kalm’s St. John’s-wort is however more commonly found in the landscape than H. prolificum, especially along the shores of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, Manitoulin Island and Lake Erie. Small yellow flower clusters appear at the ends of the branches in mid-summer, later maturing into dark brown pointed capsules. Relatively drought tolerant once established.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun • Dry to moist soil • Blooms July to August
Habitat: Sandy or rocky shorelines in calcareous soil
(Shrubby St. Johns-wort)
A multi-branched, compact shrub with 2-edged twigs crowned with a mass of golden flowers. A must for the shrub collector. This native shrub, a relative of the popular herbaceous species, is long blooming, needs little maintenance and tolerates drought. Shrub • 2-4 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to Aug. Habitat: Open woods, fields and sandy plains
A member of the Holly family, this shrub is sometimes called Black Alder. A dense, deciduous shrub with inconspicuous greenish-white flowers in spring which produce brilliant red berries in late summer, persisting into the winter. Ilex has been used as an astringent bitter, to treat jaundice, skin conditions & as a tonic. Birds eat the berries. Shrub • 6-15 feet • Part sun/part shade • Wet to moist rich soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Swamps, bogs, & damp thickets
Juniperus communis (Ground Juniper)
A medium height Juniper shrub with male and female flowers on separate plants. Females produce small, pungent blue berries in late fall which have been used to flavor gin. A very common evergreen shrub with a wide geographic distribution. The berries have had a long historic use as a tonic and as a seasoning for food and beverages.
Shrub • 3-4 feet • Full sun • Sandy to average soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Shores, open woods, clearings & old fields
Juniperus horizontalis (Creeping Juniper)
A low, trailing, ground-hugging Juniper shrub that can spread several meters wide. Male and female cones are produced on separate plants. Cultivars of this species are one of the most widely planted landscape shrubs.
Shrub • 9-12 inches • Full sun • Sandy, rocky to average soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Rocky shorelines, dunes and open rocky woods
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar)
This slow growing and long-lived small tree is adaptable to many soils, including clay. It will grow in poor soil conditions and is drought-tolerant. Seed cones appear on female trees producing dark blue berries in the autumn.
The fragrant wood is used for closet and chest linings and the berries used to flavor Gin spirits and in cooking.
The cedar waxwing is named for this species but the fruit is consumed by many birds which disperse the seeds.
Shrub or small tree • 30-50 feet • Full sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms mid-May
Habitat: Rocky ridges and dry sandy soil
Larix larcina (American Larch)
Also known as Tamarack, it is widespread across Canada and tolerant of extreme cold. Male & female flowers appear on the same tree with cones opening in August. A deciduous conifer. Unusual because it drops its leaves in late fall after turning a bright amber colour. The durable wood has been used for pulp, posts, poles and making snowshoes. Larch is an important pioneer species to regenerate forests after a burn. It is aesthetically appealing for use as an ornamental and a popular species to use in bonsai cultivation.
Tree • 60-70 feet • Full sun • Wet organic soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Bogs, swamps & wet woods
Malus coronaria (Wild Crabapple)
(Canada Moonseed Vine)
Ostrya virginiana (Ironwood)
Prunus serotina (Wild Black Cherry)
Quercus prinoides (Dwarf Chinquapin Oak)
A very small tree or shrub which is rare in Ontario. This species of Oak will produce acorns in just a few years after getting established. The thick, shallow-lobed leaves are shiny dark green on the top and pale underneath with tiny white hairs. Would make a good focal point in a dry, open garden bed. Nursery collected and propagated only. Shrub • 3-9 feet • Full sun to part shade• Dry, sandy soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Sandy shores, plains, open woods & dunes
Rhamnus alnifolia (Alder-leaved Buckthorn)
Also known as Dwarf Alder, our native Buckthorn is a thornless, low, colony-forming shrub which is common in wetlands. The ovate leaves are glossy with male and female green flowers appearing on separate plants. Dark, inedible berries are produced in late summer. A useful species in wetland restoration. Tolerant of clay soil.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil of all types • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Cedar swamps, bogs, streambanks & shores
Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac)
Often forms mounds or thickets, bruised foliage is aromatic. Male and female flowers appear on same plant.
Yellow flowers develop into hairy, sticky reddish fruit clusters in late July and August.
Tolerant of all soils but common to dry, sandy sites. Spreads by root suckers. Has had herbal uses in poultices, dyes, leather tanning and to make a drink from the fruits similar in taste to lemonade. The fruit attracts wildlife.
Shrub • Up to 5 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May.
Habitat: Dry woods, hills, sand dunes and rocky soil
Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac)
The most common Sumac in southern Ontario spreads from shallow underground rhizomes to form colonies. Used extensively in restoration plantings to stabilize slopes. White male and female flowers, on separate plants or colonies appear in early summer. Leaves turn a brilliant deep red in the fall. The shrub produces red, velvety seed clusters in late fall which sustain birds over the winter. The shrub is rich in tannins and Sumac has been used as a dye, to make beverages and as an agent in the tanning industry. Can be aggressive in a small or urban landscape.
Shrub • 12-18 feet • Full sun to part shade • Dry to moist soil • Blooms June to July
Habitat: Slopes, ridges, banks, edges of woods, open fields
(Wild Black Currant)
A small, upright shrub that produces finely haired bark that easily self peels off exposing the inner reddish layer and resin-dots. Drooping clusters of white flowers appear in late spring to later yield an edible black berry in mid summer. The herb has been used medicinally to treat urinary problems and for food. Attracts birds. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist organic soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Low wet woods, stream banks, open moist meadows
Ribes triste (Swamp Red Currant)
A low, sprawling relative of Wild Black Currant, R. triste is lower in stature and produces edible red fruit. The flower clusters tend to droop in a sad or triste (en francais) orientation giving this species its characteristic name.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Wet woods, bogs, swamps and stream banks
Rosa acicularis (Prickly Rose)
A low growing bushy shrub with reddish branchlets. Acicularis (needle-like) describes the slender, straight prickles that cover stems to ground level. Fragrant pink flowers appear in June-July which produce bright red round to egg shaped rose hips in the fall. The provincial flower of the province of Alberta.
Shrub • To 3 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Almost any soil type • Blooms June-July
Habitat: Dry open slopes open woodlands / shores, wet meadows, swamps and upland open woods
This low, compact multi-branched
thorny shrub produces attractive, single-bloomed pink flowers in early summer.
Pasture Rose will spread by underground runners which make it valuable for
restoration projects and for filling in open spaces with shrubby material
relatively quickly. Large red hips are produced in the fall which can be used as
an herbal and attract birds. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun to part shade
• Average to
dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Dry roadsides, edges of woods &
pastures, dunes & prairies
A small, multi-branched shrub which produces pink, 5 petaled single blooms for many weeks in early summer. Fruit or •hips• are produced in late summer and provide food for birds into the fall. Shares the same herbal properties of most other wild roses. Shrub • 4-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Wet organic soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Swamps, wet thickets, moist shores & bogs
Rubus flagellaris (Northern Dewberry)
An aggressive low-growing ground cover which spreads by surface runners and thrives in poor soil and drought conditions. The prickly stems offer a good deterrent against unwanted visitors in the landscape. White booms appear in June which later yield red edible berries in late July/early August. Attracts birds. Found mostly in sandy soil along shorelines. A good species to restore the landscape, stabilize a slope against erosion and attract wildlife.
Shrub/Vine • 6-8 inches Full sun to part shade • Sandy, well drained soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Shorelines and dry, open woods & fields
(Purple Flowering Raspberry)
Rubus pubescens (Dwarf Raspberry)
This low shrub has perennial, trailing, whip-like runners and herbaceous, upright leafy branches. Stems are hairy, but lack prickles. Flowers are white to pale pink. The dark red fruit is a food source for mammals and many birds. Tolerant of clay soils. Has a history of herbal use as a stomachic and for menstrual problems.
Shrub • 4-12 inches • Sun to part shade • Moist soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Damp woods, bogs and creek banks
Sambucus racemosa ssp pubens
Blooming earlier and producing a crop of berries much sooner than S. canadensis, the •Red• Elder is one of the very best species of shrubs to plant in order to attract birds. Creamy white clusters of flowers blooming in spring, followed by brilliant red berries also make this shrub an attractive addition to the landscape. The shrub is a favourite food source for over 23 species of birds as it produces the very first wild berry crop of the season. However, this species of Elderberry, unlike Canada Elderberry, is NOT edible for people. Red Elder also tolerates slightly higher & drier ground than Canada Elderberry. Shrub • 10-12 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Thickets, riverbanks and rocky sites
Shepherdia canadensis (Soapberry)This relatively low, sprawling shrub has silvery-green-gray smallish elongated leaves. The green flowers appear early in the season before the leaves open with male and female flowers occurring on separate plants. Yellowish red berries are produced on female plants in early summer. Drought tolerant. A good stabilizer for slopes. The roots have nodules containing bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air. Shrub • 4-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Sandy or gravelly calcareous slopes, shores & banks
Staphlyea trifolia (Bladdernut)
An erect, stiffly branched, tall
shrub with striped bark. The leaves have 3 oval leaflets on a long petiole.
Drooping terminal panicles of greenish-white flowers in late spring mature in
the fall into large, three-angled, bladder-like capsules containing 1-4 seeds
which persist into the winter. The seeds will make a rattling noise in their
pods. Shrub • 12-16 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil
June. Habitat: Moist woods, riverbanks & thickets.
A very ornamental shrub with thin, smooth branches and small, rounded leaves. The small pink and white tubular flowers are found in small clusters at the ends of the branches. Round white spongy fruit with a dark end spot ripens from August to October and persists into the winter. The branches are attractive in fall flower arrangements. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Sandy or rocky open ground, thickets, talus slopes
One of the most versatile species of evergreen shrubs used extensively for restoration, screening and as a windbreak. Often planted as a hedge. Provides food & shelter for birds and mammals. Historically used as rot-resistant lumber in fencing, furniture, boats and in the construction of homes of our First Nations peoples. Has been used medicinally as a cough remedy, and to cure fever & skin ailments. Highly aromatic. Has been referred to as the •Tree of Life•. Shrub/Small Tree • To 30 feet • Sun to part shade • Wet to well-drained dry soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Various, from swamps to sandy hills
This member of the Linden family, produces a straight trunk and a symmetrical, round crown. The broad, sharply toothed leaves are dull green, rich in nitrogen and minerals and an excellent contribution to soil fertility. The bark is smooth and greenish brown when young becoming greyish brown at maturity. Creamy yellow flowers are produced in mid-summer. A large tree growing up to 100 feet and living 200 years. It is very shade tolerant and prefers moist slopes. The wood is highly prized by woodcarvers. Tree • To 100 feet • Sun to part shade • Average moist, cool soil • Blooms in July. Habitat: Moist, wooded slopes, preferably facing north-east
(American Elm, White Elm)
This largest and most graceful of the Elms, growing to 110 feet and reaching an age of 200 years, was once the dominant tree species of eastern North American cities. Most larger specimens have been killed by Dutch Elm Disease. Much work is being done to restore the Elm by growing trees from seeds of mature trees which have demonstrated resistance to the disease. The greenish flowers appear in early spring before the leaves emerge. It likes mainly wet sites and full sun although is moderately shade tolerant. Tree • To 110 feet • Sun/light shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Moist meadows, swamp edges, alluvial flats
Viburnum acerifolium (Maple-leaf Viburnum)
A shade tolerant shrub, valuable in woodland gardens. Pinkish to magenta leaves are very attractive in the fall and the fruit changes from green to red, then dark blue or purple-black in September and October. This species spreads by suckers to form clumps and will grow in dry or moist sandy, rocky or clayey soil. Inner bark was used in a tea for cramps and colic, and leaves were applied to inflamed tumours. Shrub • 3-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to dry, rocky soil • Blooms May to June Habitat: Open woods, thickets, ravines and hillsides
Called Nannyberry or Sheepberry because of the smell of the fruit. It changes from green to yellow, then pink, red and finally black, often all in the same cluster at once. The foliage turns brick-red in autumn most years. Planted for ornamental purposes and in restoration projects. Provides food for birds and mammals. Historically the fruit was used for food, and both the fruit and bark used in medicine. Will gradually form large colonies from single plantings. Shrub • 12-18 feet • Sun to full shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms May to June in white clusters. Habitat: Riverbanks, lakeshores, swamps, forest edges
Viburnum rafinesquianum (Downy Arrow-wood)
A compact, finely twiggy species with white flower clusters appearing in the spring. In the fall the foliage turns a purple colour and purple-black fruit clusters appear. This Viburnum will tolerate some shade but not clay or heavy soils. Historically the bark has had medicinal uses. Downy Arrow-wood would make an interesting specimen shrub in a dry garden landscape and be valuable in naturalizing a dry, rocky site. Attractive to birds.
Shrub • Up to 6 feet • Sun to partial shade • Dry, calcareous soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Thickets, open woods, hillsides and riverbanks
(Riverbank Grape/Frost Grape)