Woody Plants & Vines

        
      

GUIDE TO TREES, SHRUBS & VINES - GO TO ORDERING PAGE FOR CURRENT AVAILABILITY

"Many Species also available in 1 gallon size"

Acer pensylvanicum (Striped Maple)
This small understory tree is also known as Moosewood because it is commonly browsed by deer and moose, but it will quickly re-sprout. The leaves are broad, 3 pointed and have shallow lobes .Male and female flowers appear on separate trees. The young bark has conspicuous vertical white and green stripes. Attracts birds and bees. The leaves have been used as a preservative to pack around apples and root vegetables in cold storage. Tolerant of deep shade.
Tree • 25-30 feet • Deep shade to part sun • Moist, cool, well-drained acidic soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Moist woods, deep valleys and northern slopes                 

Acer spicatum  (Mountain Maple)
Common throughout Southern Ontario as an understory species in swampy, wet woods. This small tree/tall shrub with crooked trunks will colonize to form thickets in cool, moist, shady environments. Stands of leafless Mountain Maple can be mistaken for some of the Dogwood species but the twigs of A. spicatum are coated with short grey hairs. The flowers and fruits grow in upright clusters. Produces brilliantly coloured leaves in the autumn. Shrub • 10-15 feet • Shade to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms June Habitat: Wet woods, swamps and thickets

Amelanchier arborea (Downy Serviceberry)
This tall, clumping shrub has numerous white blossoms in spring, followed by small red berries in mid summer that are enjoyed by birds. Performs well on a dry site once established.   Versatile in habitat and soil type. Shrub • 12-15 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Open fields, rocky slopes, woodland edges, sandy bluffs

Amorpha canescens (Lead Plant)                       
A member of the Pea family, this shrub produces delicate compound grey-green leaves and lavender flower spikes appear in mid to late summer.
A drought tolerant, delicate looking but sturdy shrub. Amorpha adds nitrogen to the soil and blends well in the landscape with other prairie species such as Butterfly Milkweed, Nodding Onion, and Wild Quinine. 
Shrub • 1-3 feet • Sun • Dry sandy soil • Blooms July to August
Habitat: Dry prairies & sandy open woods                 

Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry)
This low to medium height shrub produces white blooms in late spring, black-coloured berries in the summer, and amber foliage in the fall. It would provide a pleasing focal point in a bog garden. The fruit is eaten by birds in the fall. Shrub • 5-7 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to wet acidic soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Bogs, swamps, wet woods

 

Betula papyrifera (White Birch)
Also known as Paper Birch, this medium-sized tree is native to all regions of Canada. Flowers produce catkins which mature over the growing season. The oval, toothed leaves are smooth and turn an amber colour in the fall. The young bark is reddish-brown, thin and smooth and matures to white, and sheds easily. White Birch has been used for pulpwood, lumber and the bark for canoe building. Birch also has a history of use as a stomach and skin medicine. 
Tree • 40-60 feet • Sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Forest edges, lakeshores, various habitats                 
 

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea)           
A compact, attractive shrub for sunny dry areas. Clusters of small white flowers appear in mid summer and mature into three-lobed brown seed capsules. The leaves were once used as a substitute for tea during the American Revolution and the large red roots were used in making a dye for wool. Attracts Butterflies and other pollinators. Drought tolerant. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun  • Sandy to average soil • Blooms July
Habitat: Open dry woods, prairies, barrens and hillsides                                   

Celastrus scandens (American Bittersweet )        
This woody vine, or twining shrub is in high demand by florists for its orange berries that appear in the fall and persist into the winter. Male & female plants are required for flowering, and the blooms are small and greenish. The berries are poisonous but the dried rootstock has been used medicinally as a treatment for skin cancer. Vine • Up to 24 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to dry  soils • Blooms June. Habitat: Edges of woods, thickets & meadows                              

 

Celtis tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry)
A rare and protected species in Ontario, found naturally only in the Grand Bend Pinery on Lake Huron and the Pelee areas of Lake Erie. This member of the Elm family is a low, scraggy shrub with abundant, divergent short branches. Tiny white flowers appear in late spring. In the fall, small orangy-brown edible berries are produced. Nursery propogated only.
Shrub • 3-12 feet • Full sun to part shade • Sandy, well drained soil • Blooms May/June
Habitat: Sandy soils, dunes, dry, open woods rocky hills and barrens                          

Cephalanthus occidentalis (Buttonbush)
A large spreading shrub bearing dense, round heads of small white flowers, their long threadlike styles forming a soft halo. Prefers sites where its roots are waterlogged for at least the early part of the season. Attracts butterflies. An attractive, compact shrub. Shrub • 6-8 feet • Sun • Wet soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Along streams, ponds, bogs, marshes

Clematis virginiana (Virgins Bower, Old Man•s Beard)
An amazing, fast growing vine that does well even in partially shaded dry areas.  Small white flowers cover the plant in summer later becoming fascinating plume-tailed seed heads.  One of the few native vines that bends its leaf petioles in order to climb. Vine • 6-12 feet • Sun to partial  shade • Average to moist soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Woodland edges & riverbank thickets

Cornus alternifolia (Alternate-leaved Dogwood)

A valuable understorey shrub or small tree found in deciduous woods with an attractive structure of horizontally tiered branches. Clusters of creamy white flowers appear in June which produces black coloured berries in late summer. Useful in woodland restoration projects and also makes an attractive specimen in the home garden. The herb as been used by First Nations to treat diseases of the eye and the wood for utility implements. Attracts birds. Shrub • 12-18 feet • Part sun to part shade • Moist and variable soils • Blooms June Habitat: Open woods, thickets, ravines & slopes                          
 

Cornus amomum (Silky Dogwood)
This upright, spreading shrub is the latest blooming Dogwood in Ontario. It is somewhat larger than Red Osier Dogwood, and unusual in the blue colour of its fruits which are prized by songbirds and other wildlife. A good shrub for diversification in wetlands. Shrub • 7-9 feet • Full sun to part shade •  Moist to wet soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Marshes, wet woods, stream edges
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Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)
A low, rhizomous shrubby groundcover of acidic woods and bogs. The leaves are arranged in whorl-like clusters. A solitary creamy-white bloom appears at the tip of the stems in spring which later produces red berries in late summer. The berries are eaten by birds and other wildlife in the fall. Makes an excellent ground cover under evergreen trees. 
Shrub • 6-8 inches • Deep shade to part sun • Rich, moist, humusy, acidic soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Moist, acidic woods & bogs                                   

Cornus drummondii (Rough-leaved Dogwood)
This erect, multi-branched shrub produces small creamy white flower clusters in late spring which produces white berries on purplish-red stalks in the fall. The orangey-amber coloured foliage in the fall also adds to the visual value. Would make an excellent specimen shrub in a garden. Relatively uncommon in Ontario. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 9-12 feet • Partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Woodland edges and streambanks                 

Cornus racemosa (Gray Dogwood) This medium height, erect and multi-stemmed shrub will form colonies once established. The wood is gray to light brown in colour. White flower clusters appear in early summer which produce bunches of small white berries in late summer. Tolerant of much drier soil than the more familiar and distinctive Red Osier Dogwood, C. racemosa is a valuable species to plant for slope stabilization and restoration projects.  Attracts birds. Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to dry variable soils • Blooms June. Habitat: Thickets, roadsides, fencerows, slopes & ridges
 

Cornus rugosa (Roundleaf Dogwood) 
A broad-leaved, erect shrub for dry, gravelly places, particular calcareous soils. Clusters of small white flowers appear in June. In the fall pale blue to greenish white berries are produced on red stalks. The undersides of leaves are densely covered with wooly hairs and the foliage is colourful in the fall. Historically the bark has been used for medicinal purposes. Valuable for restoration plantings or as a landscaping specimen. Attracts birds.
Shrub • 3-10 feet • Partial  shade • Moist or dry soil • Blooms late June
Habitat: Open woods, thickets and ravine slopes                 

Cornus stolonifera (Red-osier Dogwood)
This colonizing, thicket-forming shrub is commonly used for bioengineering and wetland projects. White flowers appear in June, later producing clusters of white berries in late summer. Excellent source of food for birds and the distinctive red branches are used extensively in decorating.  Once used as an eye medicine and as a dye.
Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Swamps, wetlands, edges of streams & wet meadows
 

Corylus americana (American Hazelnut)
This shrub provides interest throughout the growing season. Yellow catkins appear in early spring before the corrugated leaves emerge. The edible nuts ripen in late summer in clusters of 2-6, each enclosed by a pair of ragged-edged bracts. These nuts provide a food source for deer, squirrels, chipmunks, blue jays and other wildlife. Hazelnut grows well in poor soils, including gravel. Native people used the nuts as food, the bark for medicinal uses and as a black dye, and bundled the twigs for brooms and brushes.  Shrub • 6-8 feet • Full sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Thickets, edges of woods, roadsides and fencerows

Crataegus sp. (Hawthorn Species)
An important species in ecological succession, Hawthorns will hybridize freely between species therefore making them difficult to identify decisively. This tall shrub/short tree produces branches that will sprawl horizontally and contain long thorns. White flowers appear in late spring which yield small, red or yellow •crabapple• like fruits in the fall. Birds rely on this species as a food source late in the season. Hawthorn has a long history of use for food, firewood and exhibits herbal properties to treat cardiac problems, skin disorders, women•s ailments, insomnia and as a tonic.   Shrub/Tree • 16-24 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Thickets, hedgerows, roadsides & rocky ground.
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Diervilla lonicera (Northern Bush-honeysuckle)
Yellow, funnel-shaped flowers are borne in threes at the ends of spreading branches. Opposite leaves are egg-shaped, toothed. Low arching habit, excellent for landscaping. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Part Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Dry woods, thickets, hillsides, pastures

         

Euonymous obovatus (Running Strawberry Bush)
This native Ontario trailing shrub will form a carpet in woodland gardens. Flowers are inconspicuous, but in the fall, orange-pink berries with scarlet seed capsules appear. A good ground cover shrub to provide greenery after spring ephemerals have vanished. Shrub • 8-12 inches • Shade • Rich, moist soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Rich, moist deciduous woods and ravines

Fraxinus nigra (Black Ash)
A very hardy tree, for wet locations, with good fall colour. The single winged seeds mature in autumn and remain well into winter, although seed crops are variable with intervals of up to seven years. Seeds are eaten by grosbeaks and mice. Beavers and porcupines eat the bark, and moose and deer eat the twigs. Many native peoples considered the wood of black ash a charm against serpents. The legend was passed on to early pioneers who made cradles out of ash wood to guard their babies against snakes. Twigs and wood splints were woven into baskets, the inner bark used in a remedy for internal ailments, and wigwams were covered with the bark. Tree • 60-85 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Wet woods, swamps and river valleys

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash)
A fast growing tree, very tolerant of poor soils and pollution. Moderately shade tolerant. Salt intolerant. Provides fall colour and is a food source for wildlife. In the past, the seeds, leaves and bark have been used in medicine. Tree • To 80 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Moist to wet swamps, along river and stream banks
 

Gleditsia triacanthos  (Honey Locust)
This towering member of the Pea family, rare in Ontario, has small leaflets on large compound leaves which provide dappled shade. Very large, multiple-branched thorns grow along the trunk and larger limbs. Male & female flowers occur on the same tree in early spring. Large flat seedpods are produced in the fall which provides food for mammals and birds. The wood is very heavy, strong and resistant to decay. Hedges of Gleditsia were planted by pioneer farmers to contain pastures. Tree • 60-75 feet • Full sun, intollerant of shade • Most moist soils, except dry sand • Blooms May Habitat: Moist, rich bottomlands and open woods

Hamamelis virginiana  (Witch-hazel)
A large, spreading shrub common along deciduous woodland edges, slopes and ravines. It prefers sandy, rocky or gravelly soil. The small yellow flowers appear very late in the season after the leaves have fallen and don•t produce mature seed until the following year. Commonly planted as a large landscaping shrub. Branches can be used in late fall floral displays. Witch-hazel has been effective as an astringent, hemostatic, to treat skin irritations and as a tonic. Shrub • 12-15 feet • Part sun & shade • Dry to moist soil • Blooms October to November Habitat: Open woods, edges, slopes & ravines

Hypericum kalmianum (Kalm’s St.John’s-wort)
A smaller shrub than H. prolificum but with much the same structure. Kalm’s St. John’s-wort is however more commonly found in the landscape than H. prolificum, especially along the shores of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, Manitoulin Island and Lake Erie. Small yellow flower clusters appear at the ends of the branches in mid-summer, later maturing into dark brown pointed capsules. Relatively drought tolerant once established.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun • Dry to moist soil • Blooms July to August
Habitat: Sandy or rocky shorelines in calcareous soil                 

Hypericum prolificum (Shrubby St. Johns-wort)
A multi-branched, compact shrub with 2-edged twigs crowned with a mass of golden flowers. A must for the shrub collector. This native shrub, a relative of the popular herbaceous species, is long blooming, needs little maintenance and tolerates drought. Shrub • 2-4 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to Aug. Habitat: Open woods, fields and sandy plains

Ilex verticillata (Winterberry)
A member of the Holly family, this shrub is sometimes called Black Alder.  A dense, deciduous shrub with inconspicuous greenish-white flowers in spring which produce brilliant red berries in late summer, persisting into the winter. Ilex has been used as an astringent bitter, to treat jaundice, skin conditions & as a tonic. Birds eat the berries. Shrub • 6-15 feet • Part sun/part shade • Wet to moist rich soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Swamps, bogs, & damp thickets

Juniperus communis (Ground Juniper)              
A medium height Juniper shrub with male and female flowers on separate plants.  Females produce small, pungent  blue berries in late fall which have been used to flavor gin. A very common evergreen shrub with a wide geographic distribution. The berries have had a long historic use as a tonic and as a seasoning for food and beverages.
Shrub • 3-4 feet • Full sun  • Sandy to average soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Shores, open woods, clearings & old fields                    

Juniperus horizontalis (Creeping Juniper)      
A low, trailing, ground-hugging Juniper shrub that can spread several meters wide. Male and female cones are produced on separate plants. Cultivars of this species are one of the most widely planted landscape shrubs.
Shrub • 9-12 inches • Full sun  • Sandy, rocky to average soil • Blooms May-June
Habitat: Rocky shorelines, dunes and open rocky woods           

Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar) 
This slow growing and long-lived small tree is adaptable to many soils, including clay. It will grow in poor soil conditions and is drought-tolerant. Seed cones appear on female trees producing dark blue berries in the autumn.
The fragrant wood is used for closet and chest linings and the berries used to flavor Gin spirits and in cooking.
The cedar waxwing is named for this species but the fruit is consumed by many birds which disperse the seeds.
Shrub or small tree • 30-50 feet • Full sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms mid-May
Habitat: Rocky ridges and dry sandy soil                  

Larix larcina (American Larch)                        
Also known as Tamarack, it is widespread across Canada and tolerant of extreme cold. Male & female flowers appear on the same tree with cones opening in August. A deciduous conifer. Unusual because it drops its leaves in late fall after turning a bright amber colour. The durable wood has been used for pulp, posts, poles and making snowshoes. Larch is an important pioneer species to regenerate forests after a burn. It is aesthetically appealing for use as an ornamental and a popular species to use in bonsai cultivation.  
Tree • 60-70 feet • Full sun • Wet organic soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Bogs, swamps & wet woods                                                 

Lonicera dioica (Glaucous Honeysuckle)
A straggling and twining climbing shrub or vine with a diverse range of habitats. The smooth, green branches produce simple, opposite, smooth leaves and tubular yellowish/orange flowers appear in late spring. Orange berries appear later in the summer. Flowers (sunny locations) attract hummingbirds and butterflies. The herb has been used for lung problems.  Shrub/Vine • 8-12 feet • Partial to full Sun • Average to dry calcareous soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Open woods, thickets, rocky slopes & shores

Malus coronaria (Wild Crabapple)           
A small tree with stiff branches and thorns on older twigs. Showy, fragrant pinkish-white flowers appear in May. In the fall, small yellow crabapples are produced and the foliage turns a rich amber colour. The only truly native species of Apple in Ontario, despite the abundance of derivates of escaped cultivated apples which have become naturalized.
Tree • To 30 feet • Full sun to part shade • Average soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Open woods & thickets

Menispermum canadense (Canada Moonseed Vine)
A member of the Moonseed family, Menispermum takes off quickly once established. This unusual woody vine has broad, roundish, lobed shiny green leaves and will twine its way up a fence or thicket edge. Flowers are whitish-green, small & almost inconspicuous. The rootstock has been used as a tonic, alterative, diuretic, purgative and to treat gout. Spreads by runners aggressively, but useful in restoration and produces a quick vertical presence in the landscape.  Vine • To 6-12 feet • Sun to part shade •Moist to average soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Moist woods & thickets

Ostrya virginiana (Ironwood)           
Also known as Hop-hornbeam, this member of the Birch family has both male and female flowers on the same tree.
Ironwood is an understorey tree in deciduous woods and is very shade tolerant. In the fall the leaves turn a yellow colour and ripe seed clusters resembling hops appear also. The wood has been used for tool handles & wheel spokes. Ironwood shows promise as a good landscaping tree in urban environments but does not tolerate extremely wet or dry conditions.
Small tree • Up to 40 feet • Partial shade • Moist to well-drained soil • Blooms April to May
Habitat: Well-drained slopes and ridges                 

 

Parthenocissus inserta (Thicket Creeper)
Very similar to Virginia
Creeper, this extremely versatile vine climbs with slender twining tendrils. Glossy green leaves composed of five leaflets arranged like fingers on a hand, turn striking red in autumn. Flowers are inconspicuous, producing dark blue berries in late summer to fall. Also useful as a fast growing ground cover. Tolerant of deep shade and dry shade. Birds eat the berries. Valued in restoration plantings. Vine • To 30 feet • Sun to shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Woods, thickets

Physocarpus opulifolius (Ninebark)
This white flowering shrub has stiffly arching branches and an erect spreading habit.  Great as a hedge or protective wildlife pocket. Flowers turn red later. Valued for its• diversity of display throughout the season. Good shrub for restoration and butterflies. Shrub • 6-10 feet • Sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Thickets and riverbanks.

 

Prunus pumila (Sandcherry)
This low branching shrub spreads nicely along the ground, has course foliage, white flowers in the spring and edible black fruit in summer. Spectacular fall foliage completes the seasonal display with leaves changing to pinks, reds and purples. This shrub likes full sun, tolerates a wide range of moisture and should be used more in the landscape. Once common along the shorelines of the lower Great Lakes, now is seldom seen here. Provides food for birds & mammals. Shrub • 1-3 feet • Sun • Dry to moist soil • Blooms in June. Habitat: Shorelines, dunes, rocky slopes & alvars

 

Prunus serotina (Wild Black Cherry)           
The largest member of the Cherry family in Ontario. White blossoms appear in spring, producing clusters of black fruit in late summer. The wood has been used in the crafting of fine furniture and the cherries attracts birds. The fruit is edible and has been used as an astringent and tonic.   
Tree • Up to 75 feet • Full sun • Tolerates a wide range of soils • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Decidous woods & meadows                                   

 

Prunus virginiana (Choke Cherry)
This large spreading shrub will form thickets and grows fairly quickly. Many white flowers appear in spring, followed by red-black fruits in late summer. A favourite food for birds and used to make jelly. Adaptable to many sites and used in restoration. Tall Shrub • 8-12 feet • Full sun/part shade • Wide range of soils • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Various, from dry sandy hills to swamp edges                          

Quercus prinoides (Dwarf Chinquapin Oak)
A very small tree or shrub which is rare in Ontario. This species of Oak will produce acorns in just a few years after getting established. The thick, shallow-lobed leaves are shiny dark green on the top and pale underneath with tiny white hairs. Would make a good focal point in a dry, open garden bed. Nursery collected and propagated only. Shrub • 3-9 feet • Full sun to part shade•  Dry, sandy soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Sandy shores, plains, open woods & dunes                 

Rhamnus alnifolia (Alder-leaved Buckthorn)           
Also known as Dwarf Alder, our native Buckthorn is a thornless, low, colony-forming shrub which is common in wetlands. The ovate leaves are glossy with male and female green flowers appearing on separate plants. Dark, inedible berries are produced in late summer. A useful species in wetland restoration. Tolerant of clay soil.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil of all types • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Cedar swamps, bogs, streambanks & shores                                   

Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) 
Often forms mounds or thickets, bruised foliage is aromatic. Male and female flowers appear on same plant.
Yellow flowers develop into hairy, sticky reddish fruit clusters in late July and August.
Tolerant of all soils but common to dry, sandy sites. Spreads by root suckers.  Has had herbal uses in poultices, dyes, leather tanning and to make a drink from the fruits similar in taste to lemonade. The fruit attracts wildlife.
Shrub • Up to 5 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May.
Habitat: Dry woods, hills, sand dunes and rocky soil                 

Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac)                        
The most common Sumac in southern Ontario spreads from shallow underground rhizomes to form colonies. Used extensively in restoration plantings to stabilize slopes. White male and female flowers, on separate plants or colonies appear in early summer. Leaves turn a brilliant deep red in the fall. The shrub produces red, velvety seed clusters in late fall which sustain birds over the winter.  The shrub is rich in tannins and Sumac has been used as a dye, to make beverages and as an agent in the tanning industry. Can be aggressive in a small or urban landscape.
Shrub • 12-18 feet • Full sun to part shade • Dry to moist soil • Blooms June to July
Habitat: Slopes, ridges, banks, edges of woods, open fields      

Ribes americanum (Wild Black Currant)
A small, upright shrub that produces finely haired bark that easily self peels off exposing the inner reddish layer and resin-dots. Drooping clusters of white flowers appear in late spring to later yield an edible black berry in mid summer. The herb has been used medicinally to treat urinary problems and for food.  Attracts birds.  Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist organic soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Low wet woods, stream banks, open moist meadows

Ribes cynosbati (Prickly Gooseberry)
A low, upright shrub with fine thorns along the outer stems and spines at the nodes. Yellowish-green flowers appear in late spring which mature into edible wine-coloured berries in mid summer. The berries also are covered with prickles. Fairly common shrub in limestone-based soil in open woods of Southern Ontario. The edible fruit has a long history of use as a food source and in jams & jellies. Also has been used to treat urinary ailments.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms late May to early June
Habitat: Open woods and rocky ground                 

Ribes triste (Swamp Red Currant)                    
A low, sprawling relative of Wild Black Currant, R. triste is lower in stature and produces edible red fruit. The flower clusters tend to droop in a sad or triste (en francais) orientation giving this species its characteristic name.
Shrub • 2-3 feet • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Wet woods, bogs, swamps and stream banks                  

Rosa acicularis (Prickly Rose)                          
A low growing bushy shrub with reddish branchlets. Acicularis (needle-like) describes the slender, straight prickles that cover stems to ground level. Fragrant pink flowers appear in June-July which produce bright red round to egg shaped rose hips in the fall. The provincial flower of the province of Alberta.
Shrub • To 3 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Almost any soil type • Blooms June-July
Habitat: Dry open slopes open woodlands / shores, wet meadows, swamps and upland open woods

Rosa blanda (Smooth Rose)
This shrub produces a lovely single petaled rose so characteristic of old wild roses. The flower is pinkish-white which produces a hip in late summer. The stems may have a few thorns at the base, but generally are smooth. Tolerant of both sand and clay soils. The hips are high in vitamin C, & eaten by birds. First Nations used Rosa to treat eye diseases. Shrub • 2-4 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms June to July Habitat: Meadows, thickets, open woods, rocky & sandy banks

 

 

Rosa carolina (Pasture Rose) This low, compact multi-branched thorny shrub produces attractive, single-bloomed pink flowers in early summer. Pasture Rose will spread by underground runners which make it valuable for restoration projects and for filling in open spaces with shrubby material relatively quickly. Large red hips are produced in the fall which can be used as an herbal and attract birds. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Dry roadsides, edges of woods & pastures, dunes & prairies

Rosa palustris (Swamp Rose)
A small, multi-branched shrub which produces pink, 5 petaled single blooms for many weeks in early summer. Fruit or •hips• are produced in late summer and provide food for birds into the fall. Shares the same herbal properties of most other wild roses.  Shrub • 4-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Wet organic soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Swamps, wet thickets, moist shores & bogs

Rubus flagellaris (Northern Dewberry)           
An aggressive low-growing ground cover which spreads by surface runners and thrives in poor soil and drought conditions. The prickly stems offer a good deterrent against unwanted visitors in the landscape.  White booms appear in June which later yield red edible berries in late July/early August.  Attracts birds.  Found mostly in sandy soil along shorelines.  A good species to restore the landscape, stabilize a slope against erosion and  attract wildlife.
Shrub/Vine • 6-8 inches  Full sun to part shade • Sandy, well drained soil • Blooms June
Habitat: Shorelines and dry, open woods & fields                 

Rubus odoratus (Purple Flowering Raspberry)
The largest of the Raspberries, spreads by underground shoots to form thickets. A showy species with large Maple-like, course textured leaves and producing large, purple-pink flowers. Will grow in sandy or clay soils. The bark has been used as an astringent & tonic. Recommended for large, open areas  and for restoration. Shrub • 3-5 feet • Sun/part shade • Average soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Clearings, thickets, ravines & woodland edges

Rubus pubescens (Dwarf Raspberry)
This low shrub has perennial, trailing, whip-like runners and herbaceous, upright leafy branches. Stems are hairy, but lack prickles. Flowers are white to pale pink. The dark red fruit is a food source for mammals and many birds. Tolerant of clay soils. Has a history of herbal use as a stomachic and for menstrual problems.
Shrub • 4-12 inches • Sun to part shade • Moist soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Damp woods, bogs and creek banks                 

Salix candida   (Hoary Willow)
This fast growing, multiple stemmed shrub has silvery oblong shaped leaves covered with fine, woolly hairs. The flower is a catkin not unlike a Pussy Willow. It is quite striking in the landscape and has also been called Sage-leaved Willow.  Salix sp. has been used medicinally to treat pain and fever, and the young twigs in weaving. Shrub • 5-7 feet • Sun/light shade • Moist soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Cold, wet meadows, marsh edges, lakeshores & bogs



Salix cordata
(Heart-leaved Willow)
A spreading, thicket-forming coarse shrub with wide hairy leaves. Relatively uncommon. Because of its aggressive nature it would best be planted in an area with lots of space or used for restoration  plantings. Shares the same herbal properties as other willows. Will grow in all soil types, including clay.
Shrub • 6-9 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Shores, banks and dunes in silt, sand or gravel                 

Sambucus canadensis (Canada Elderberry)
An erect shrub with large, opposite, compound leaves on long petioles. Heavily scented white flowers borne on showy flat-topped clusters at the ends of branches produce juicy, edible purple-black berries much loved by birds. Berries can be used in pies, jelly and wine. Used as a purgative, diuretic, stimulant and remedy for skin problems. Shrub • 6-8 feet • Sun • Average to moist soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Moist, open woods, thickets and fields

Sambucus racemosa ssp pubens (Red-berried Elder)
Blooming earlier and producing a crop of berries much sooner than S. canadensis, the •Red• Elder is one of the very best species of shrubs to plant in order to attract birds. Creamy white clusters of flowers blooming in spring, followed by brilliant red berries also make this shrub an attractive addition to the landscape.  The shrub is a favourite food source for over 23 species of birds as it produces the very first wild berry crop of the season.  However, this species of Elderberry, unlike Canada Elderberry, is NOT edible for people. Red Elder also tolerates slightly higher & drier ground than Canada Elderberry. Shrub • 10-12 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Thickets, riverbanks and rocky sites

Shepherdia canadensis (Soapberry)

This relatively low, sprawling shrub has silvery-green-gray smallish elongated leaves. The green flowers appear early in the season before the leaves open with male and female flowers occurring on separate plants. Yellowish red berries are produced on female plants in early summer. Drought tolerant. A good stabilizer for slopes.  The roots have nodules containing bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air. Shrub • 4-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Sandy or gravelly calcareous slopes, shores & banks 

Spiraea alba (Narrow-leaved Meadowsweet)
This lovely shrub has lance-shaped finely toothed leaves and showy branching clusters of small white flowers at the ends of branches. Valuable in restoration projects. Shrub • 3-5 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Moist meadows, and swamps


Staphlyea trifolia (Bladdernut)                 

An erect, stiffly branched, tall shrub with striped bark. The leaves have 3 oval leaflets on a long petiole.  Drooping terminal panicles of greenish-white flowers in late spring mature in the fall into large, three-angled, bladder-like capsules containing 1-4 seeds which persist into the winter. The seeds will make a rattling noise in their pods. Shrub • 12-16 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Moist woods, riverbanks & thickets.

Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry)  
A very ornamental shrub with thin, smooth branches and small, rounded leaves. The small pink and white tubular flowers are found in small clusters at the ends of the branches.  Round white spongy fruit with a dark end spot ripens from August to October and persists into the winter. The branches are attractive in fall flower arrangements. Shrub • 2-3 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Sandy or rocky open ground, thickets, talus slopes

Thuja occidentalis  (Eastern White Cedar) 
One of the most versatile species of evergreen shrubs used extensively for restoration, screening and as a windbreak. Often planted as a hedge. Provides food & shelter for birds and mammals. Historically used as rot-resistant lumber in fencing, furniture, boats and in the construction of homes of our First Nations peoples. Has been used medicinally as a cough remedy, and to cure fever & skin ailments. Highly aromatic. Has been referred to as the •Tree of Life•.  Shrub/Small Tree • To 30 feet • Sun to part shade • Wet to well-drained dry soil • Blooms May.  Habitat: Various, from swamps to sandy hills 

Tilia americana   American Basswood)
This member of the Linden family, produces a straight trunk and a symmetrical, round crown. The broad, sharply toothed leaves are dull green, rich in nitrogen and minerals and an excellent contribution to soil fertility.  The bark is smooth and greenish brown when young becoming greyish brown at maturity. Creamy yellow flowers are produced in mid-summer. A large tree growing up to 100 feet and living 200 years. It is very shade tolerant and prefers moist slopes. The wood is highly prized by woodcarvers. Tree • To 100 feet • Sun to part shade • Average moist, cool soil • Blooms in July. Habitat: Moist, wooded slopes, preferably facing north-east

Ulmus americana   (American Elm, White Elm)
This largest and most graceful of the Elms, growing to 110 feet and reaching an age of 200 years, was once the dominant tree species of eastern North American cities. Most larger specimens have been killed by Dutch Elm Disease. Much work is being done to restore the Elm by growing trees from seeds of mature trees which have demonstrated resistance to the disease. The greenish flowers appear in early spring before the leaves emerge. It likes mainly wet sites and full sun although is moderately shade tolerant.  Tree • To 110 feet • Sun/light shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Moist meadows, swamp edges, alluvial flats


Viburnum acerifolium (Maple-leaf Viburnum)
A shade tolerant shrub, valuable in woodland gardens. Pinkish to magenta leaves are very attractive in the fall and the fruit changes from green to red, then dark blue or purple-black in September and October. This species spreads by suckers to form clumps and will grow in dry or moist sandy, rocky or clayey soil. Inner bark was used in a tea for cramps and colic, and leaves were applied to inflamed tumours. Shrub • 3-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to dry, rocky soil • Blooms May to June Habitat: Open woods, thickets, ravines and hillsides

Viburnum lentago (Nannyberry)
Called Nannyberry or Sheepberry because of the smell of the fruit. It changes from green to yellow, then pink, red and finally black, often all in the same cluster at once. The foliage turns brick-red in autumn most years. Planted for ornamental purposes and in restoration projects. Provides food for birds and mammals. Historically the fruit was used for food, and both the fruit and bark used in medicine. Will gradually form large colonies from single plantings. Shrub • 12-18 feet • Sun to full shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms May to June in white clusters.  Habitat: Riverbanks, lakeshores, swamps, forest edges

Viburnum rafinesquianum (Downy Arrow-wood) 
A compact, finely twiggy species with white flower clusters appearing in the spring. In the fall the foliage turns a purple colour and purple-black fruit clusters appear. This Viburnum will tolerate some shade but not clay or heavy soils. Historically the bark has had medicinal uses. Downy Arrow-wood would make an interesting specimen shrub in a dry garden landscape and be valuable in naturalizing a dry, rocky site. Attractive to birds.
Shrub • Up to 6 feet • Sun to partial shade • Dry, calcareous soil • Blooms May to June
Habitat: Thickets, open woods, hillsides and riverbanks                 

Viburnum trilobum (Highbush Cranberry)
This thicket-forming large shrub produces many flat-topped clusters of white flowers in late spring which yield many bunches of juicy, red berries in the fall. The deep red foliage also makes for a stunning display in the fall. The fruit is eaten by many birds and can be used to make jelly. Cuttings make a stunning indoor display in autumn. Shrub • 9-12 feet • Full sun to part shade • Average to damp soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Moist meadows & thickets, swamp & stream edges

Vitis riparia (Riverbank Grape/Frost Grape)
This vigorous, woody vine is often seen growing over fences, shrubs, and up trees. The flowers are inconspicuous, but small bunches of edible  blue-black berries develop late in the season, and sweeten after a frost. Very common throughout southern Ontario, preferring calcareous soil. Valuable for restoration and wildlife habitat. Vine • Growing to 15-20 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Riverbanks, thickets, open sandy or rocky ground