Perennials & Biennials

        
      

GUIDE TO HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS & BIENNIALS - GO TO ORDERING PAGE FOR CURRENT AVAILABILITY

Actaea pachypoda (White Baneberry, Dolls Eyes)
This member of the Buttercup family is noted for its compact, bushy growing habit, sharply toothed compound leaves, white flowers and showy white berries in late summer. The plant itself is poisonous but has been used to treat Rattlesnake bites. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Shade to part sun • Rich woodland soil  • Blooms June. Habitat: Deciduous woodlands
 

Actaea rubra (Red Baneberry) 
Similar to A. pachypoda but with more slender flower stalks and bright red berries. An excellent plant to landscape the woodland garden both for its shrub-like form, white flowers and red berries.  Will tolerate deep shade.
Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun to part shade • Rich woodland soil • Blooms June. & Habitat: Woodland
 

Agastache foeniculum (Blue Giant Hyssop)
A member of the Mint family, Blue Giant Hyssop�s distinctive licorice-scented foliage can be used for tea. Dense blue-violet 2-4 inch flower heads are borne at the tops of tall stems. Drought tolerant and a prolific seed producer. Excellent nectar plant, attracts hummingbirds, butterflies and bees.  A good companion in both colour and structure to the many yellow flowers that bloom in the prairie at that time of year. Perennial • 3-4 feet • Sun, part sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August. Habitat: Upland woods, prairies, meadows
 

 

 

Allium canadense (Canada Wild Onion)
Strongly flavoured leaves can be used like chives in cooking. Bears umbels of white flowers as well as clusters of small bulblets which drop and quickly root. Perennial • 12-16 inches • Sun to shade • Wet to dry soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Woods, prairies and meadows
                                                                              

Allium cernuum (Nodding Onion)
Flower stems bend just below the cluster of lavender flowers, giving the plant its common name. The ribbon-like leaves are long and graceful.  A compact, showy and care-free addition to any sunny garden. Drought tolerant. Fairly uncommon in the remaining prairie remnants of southwest Ontario, but becoming popular with gardeners. Perennial • 12-16 inches • Sun, part sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms July. Habitat:  Prairies, open woods and rocky outcrops
 

Allium tricoccum (Wild Leek)
This compact plant spreads to form large colonies in undisturbed woodlots. The bulb has the strong odor of garlic. Both the bulb and leaves have long been considered a favorite delicacy in salads and used as a spring �tonic�. Has whitish blooms in spring. Perennial bulb • 8-10 inches • Part sun to shade • Rich, moist soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Rich deciduous woods
 

Anaphalis margaritacea (Pearly Everlasting)
This charming little plant is great for dried flower arrangements.  The pure white flowers cluster at the top of white wooly stems.  A good garden companion to fireweed. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to September. Habitat: Meadows
 

 

Anemone canadensis (Canada Anenome)
A member of the Buttercup family that spreads by rhizomes. Showy, white flowers appear in late spring.  Excellent choice for quickly covering moist meadow edges around large ponds or wetlands.  Very showy when grown into a large colony. Perennial • 12-24 inches • Sun to part shade •  Moist to wet soil • Blooms June.
Habitat: Moist meadows, shores, wetlands
 

Anemone cylindrica (Long-fruited Anemone)
A greenish-white flowered, drought�tolerant prairie native, this plant is noted for its interesting seed head � a long thimble-like cylindrical cone. An essential species in prairie restoration. Blends well with Butterfly Milkweed, Lance-leaved Coreopsis, Hairy Beardtongue, Black-eyed Susan and many prairie grass species. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July Habitat: Meadows and prairies
    

Anemone multifida (Red Anemone)  
A compact and low species for dry, rocky edges. Deep red blooms appear in late spring atop stems emerging from an attractive rosette of deeply lobed leaves. Grows best in calcareous soil.  A good addition to a domestic rock garden. Perennial • 6-8 inches • Sun • Sandy to average dry to semi-moist soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Shores and rocky banks & abandoned quarries
 

Anemone virginiana (Thimbleweed)
This drought tolerant meadow species produces long, greenish-white flowers, followed by cotton-like seed heads which last right through the fall.  Provides a bold texture. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms July.
Habitat: Rocky, dry woods, woodland edges, banks
 

Aquilegia canadensis (Wild Columbine)
This gorgeous woodland wildflower has red and yellow nodding blooms similar to the bell shaped blossoms of the garden Columbines. Great attractant for butterflies and hummingbirds. Has many habitats, tolerates acidic soil and self-seeds generously. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun to shade •  Average to dry soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Meadows to open woodlands
 

 

Aralia racemosa (Spikenard)
This tall woodland plant bears clusters of greenish-white flowers on branching stems with large, heart-shaped leaflets. Fruit is a dark purple berry. Noted for its aromatic root, it has been used as a treatment for asthma, rheumatism, coughs and wounds. Perennial • 3-6 feet • Part sun to shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Rich woods
                              

Arisaema triphyllum ssp triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit)
Large green leaves form a lush canopy overtop the distinctive �Jack-in-the-pulpit� bloom.  The �pulpit� portion  varies in colour from simple green to streaks or mottling of purplish brown.  Bright red berries appear in late summer. The fleshy taproot has been eaten as a vegetable and used for asthma. Tolerant of acidic soil. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Part to full shade • Average to moist soils • Blooms May  to June. Habitat: Shady woodlands
  

 

Asarum canadense (Wild Ginger)
Bold, distinctively heart-shaped foliage makes this native an indispensable plant for moist shade gardens. All parts of the plant contain volatile oils that have the odor of culinary ginger. Tea made from the roots has been used to relieve flatulence, colic and upset stomach. Makes an excellent ground cover, but spreads modestly. Perennial • 6-8 inches • Shade • Moist  soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Rich deciduous woodlands
  

 

Asclepias incarnata (Swamp Milkweed)
One of our showiest species with flattened, brightly coloured white and pink flower heads at the tips of tall stems. Excellent nectar plant for many species of butterflies; foliage provides food for larval stages of the Monarch butterfly. Forms clumps. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Sun, part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Swamps, moist meadows
 

Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed)          
Probably the most important species to sustain the Monarch Butterfly. This aggressive, broad-leaved plant spreads by runners and is not recommended for smaller garden borders and display beds. The plant has a bold, chunky texture with stout, hairy stems which contain a milky white sap. In mid summer pink, spherical clusters of fragrant pink flowers appear which attracts many species of pollinators, including the Monarch. Large seed pods are produced in the fall and the seeds are wind dispersed by silks.  Not as widespread in the landscape in recent years due to current agricultural practices and herbicide use. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Full sun • Grows in most soils • Blooms July to August • Habitat: Fields, meadows and roadsides

 

Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly Milkweed)
One of the best plants for attracting and sustaining the Monarch butterfly, as well as other butterfly species. Clusters of bright orange flowers appear in mid-summer. Demands very well-drained soil and tolerates drought. A chief species in dry prairies. Perennial • 18-30 inches • Full sun • Average to dry, well-drained soil • Blooms July.
Habitat: Prairies, dry fields, open upland woods
 

Aster cordifolius (Heart-leaved Aster
Dense masses of pale lavender-white flowers and luscious heart-shaped leaves make this a captivating addition to fall blooming gardens. A good choice for a shade garden. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Partial to full shade • Average soil • Blooms September to October. Habitat: Shady deciduous woodlands

Aster divaricatus (White Wood Aster)
Compact understorey species of well-drained deciduous woodlands. The abundant clusters of bright white flowers are long lasting and brighten up a late summer/early autumn woodland. Beneficial species to pollinators. Perennial
1-3 feetPart sun to shadeDry soilBlooms SeptemberHabitat: Dry, open deciduous woods

Aster ericoides (Heath Aster)  
A compact, drought tolerant Aster with many clusters of tiny white flowers appearing at the end of the growing season. A welcome addition to a late season garden and useful as a cut flower. Attracts butterflies & other pollinators. Useful in restoration projects as well as in the home garden. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun • Average to dry sandy soil • Blooms September to October. Habitat: Dry, open places & roadsides
 

Aster laevis (Smooth Blue Aster))  
A tall Aster with an array of very attractive flowers, blue or violet in colour. This lovely member of the Aster family is grown from short stout rhizomes. Important fall species for butterflies.  Drought tolerant. An important species for prairie restoration. Perennial 2-4 feet  Sun Average to dry soil Blooms August to September. Habitat: Dry meadows, fields & open woods, prairies 
 

Aster lateriflorus (Calico Aster)
An interesting fall bloomer.  The yellow centre disk of the dainty white or faded purple blooms begins to mature, changing to a purplish-bronze colour. One plant, and sometimes even a solitary blossom changes colour to produce a calico effect. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun to shade • Average soil • Blooms August to October. Habitat: Open woodlands, and edges 
 

Aster lowrieanus (Lowrie’s Aster)           
Similar in appearance to Aster cordifolius but with very smooth leaves. Blooms are blue-violet
Useful in a woodland garden to increase species diversity and to provide late season colour. Also a valuable species to benefit pollinating insects.
Perennial • 2-4 feet • Shade to part sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms September to October
Habitat: Woods                 
 

Aster macrophyllus (Large-leaved Aster)
As depicted by its common name this Aster has large heart shaped leaves. The basal leaves are often harsh and thick. Flower clusters are violet or lavender with yellow centers.  It likes some sun but will tolerate dappled shade. Provides late season colour and a bold texture in the garden. The flower nectar nourishes butterflies in the fall. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms Aug to October  Habitat: Dry woods
 

Aster novae-angliae (New England Aster)
One of the showiest of the Asters, tall stems are crowned in fall with rounded heads of 1-inch blooms in shades of violet to purple. Forms a thick clump after a few years growth. Tolerates clay. Attracts bees and butterflies. Native Americans have used the roots for fever, catarrh and pain.  Blends well with Solidago species. Good for cutting. Perennial • 2-6 feet • Sun, part sun • Moist to dry soil  • Blooms August to October. Habitat: Moist meadows, open woods, fields.

 

Aster oolentagiensis (Sky-blue Aster)
The common name describes the deep blue or violet-blue blooms of this attractive Aster.  The stem and thick leaves are rough textured. This drought tolerant species is one of the most appealing Asters in our display bed and blooms over a long period.  Makes an excellent cut flower and attracts many species of butterflies. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Full Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms August to October Habitat: Dry open woods, thickets, and prairies
 

Aster puniceus (Swamp Aster)   
Also called Purple-stemmed Aster this tall and robust species is a good choice for wetland restoration projects. The lavender flowers appear late in the season and are attractive as cut flowers. Provides nectar for pollinators. Perennial • 3-5 feet • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil of all types • Blooms September to October. Habitat: Swamps, wet meadows & other low, wet places
 

Aster shortii (Short's Aster)
A good species for woodland restoration projects. Lower stem leaves are narrow and heart-shaped.  Produces pale violet flowers in the fall. A good companion under Oaks on a dry sunny site.  Spreads vigorously to form a large colony. Attracts butterflies. An aggressive and quickly spreading species of Aster. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Light shade to sun • Average soil • Blooms September to October.  Habitat: Open woodlands & rocky slopes
 

Aster umbellatus  (Flat-topped White Aster)
Flat-topped, dense clusters of white flowers with yellow centers provide a striking show in the autumn, helping to set off the other Aster species and Goldenrods. A good choice for marsh and swamp restoration projects and garden ponds. Attracts butterflies. Perennial • 3-6 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms August to September.  Habitat: Swamp edges, wet meadows
 

Astragalus canadensis (Canada Milkvetch)
A member of the Pea family, this species has the same structure and sprawling habit of common Vetch, but is much taller. The creamy white flowers attract hummingbirds & butterflies. Provides a bold texture and interest in the garden, and fixes nitrogen. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to average soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Open woodlands, riverbanks & shores
 

Caltha palustris  (Marsh Marigold)
A member of the Buttercup family which forms carpets of showy, bright yellow flowers in early spring, well before other wildflowers emerge. This compact plant is a good choice for pond landscaping where it can be planted in partially submerged pots and set inside the pond. Valuable also in wetland restoration projects. Has been used medicinally to treat sores, as a painkiller, antispasmodic and as a dye. Perennial • 12-18 inches • Full sun to part shade • Wet to moist soil of all types • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Swamps, wetlands & edges of streams
 

Camassia scilloides (Wild Hyacinth)
A member of the Lily family, this lovely plant has pale blue flowers grouped in clusters along long stems. The leaves are long, slender and upright and like most bulbous plants, disappear in mid summer. Uncommon. Nursery propagated only. Limited quantities available. Perennial bulb • 1-2 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to moist soil • Blooms in late spring. Habitat: Meadows, prairies and open woods

Campanula rotundifolia (American Harebell)
A robust plant with a delicate appearance.  Basal leaves are round and slightly heart shaped.  Stems are slender with narrow leaves and nodding purplish-blue bell-shaped flowers extend up to 1 inch long.  A Compact, study plant that blooms over an extended period throughout the summer. Drought tolerant. Perennial • 12-18 inches • Full sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to September. Habitat: Dry woods, meadows, cliffs and rocky shorelines
 

Caulophyllum thalictroides  (Blue Cohosh)
Known also as Squaw Root, this erect plant has a dark blue colour when emerging in the spring. Flowers are yellowish/green/purple & blue berries appear in fall. A powerful herbal with a long history of medicinal uses including regulation of menstrual flow, to induce labour, relieve cramps, rheumatism, dropsy, epilepsy and hysteria.  Perennial • 1-2 feet • Shade • Moist loamy soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Rich deciduous woods
 

Chelone glabra (Turtlehead)
A member of the Figwort family, this unique plant has lance shaped leaves and lovely large white flowers that resemble a turtles head. Wonderful for that moist to wet area as it likes semi shady swamps. Chelone has been used medicinally as a tonic, laxative and to treat liver disorders and skin sores. Butterflies will feed on the nectar. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Part sun/part shade • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Swamps, stream banks, wet meadows & woods

 

Cimicifuga racemosa (Black Snakeroot / Black Cohosh)
A tall, majestic woodland species of the Buttercup family that grows into a large, bushy, prominent plant. The leaves closely resemble those of the Baneberries and tall white flower spikes appear in mid summer, after most woodland wildflowers have finished blooming. Parts of the plant have been used to treat gynecological disorders. • Perennial • 3-5 feet • Shade to part sun • Moist to dry acidic soil  • Blooms July to August • Habitat: Deciduous woodlands

 

 

Coreopsis lanceolata (Lance-leaved Coreopsis)
This drought tolerant, compact, long-blooming plant is highly desirable in the native garden. The brilliant yellow flowers persist most of the summer and provide nectar for bees and butterflies. Excellent as cut-flowers. A common species for prairie restoration. Perennial • 12-24 inches • Full sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to August. Habitat: Prairies & dry meadows
 

Coreopsis tripteris (Tall Coreopsis)
Perhaps the most dramatic of the Coreopsis, this Tallgrass Ontario native produces an abundance of tiny yellow flowers in late summer and crimson foliage in autumn. A good companion for several of our native grasses such as Indian Grass, Switch Grass and Big Bluestem. Attracts songbirds and butterflies. Can be used as a cut flower. Perennial • 5-8 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August to Sept. Habitat: Wood edges, thickets, meadows & prairies

 

Cystopteris bulbifera (Bulblet Fern)
A compact and interesting fern found in rocky, calcareous soil of woodlands. This fern reproduces by spores as well as by producing small bulblets which grow along the mid stems of the leaf. These will quickly set down roots when knocked to the ground and start to grow fronds. Perennial 1-2 feet  Shade to part sun Moist, rocky calcareous soil Habitat: Moist, rocky woods, usually slopes

 

Desmodium canadense (Showy Tick-trefoil)
This bushy member of the Pea family is great for use as a fast growing cover in problem areas.  It has an aggressive habit and fixes nitrogen in the soil.  The rose-purple pea-like blossoms form peculiar jointed pods that break into one-seeded segments when mature. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to August • Habitat: Meadows, prairies and savannas

 

Dioscorea quaternata  (Fourleaf Wild-Yam)
An appealing spring flowering vine that produces tubers. Grows best in semi-shaded conditions. Flowers vary from white to a green tinted yellow. The wide, heart-shaped leaves and climbing characteristics make this an attractive vine. Wild Yam has been used in the treatment of neuralgia, stomach and menstrual cramps and as a general antispasmodic. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Part shade • Average to moist soil • Blooms May • Habitat: Thickets and floodplain woodlands

Dryopteris carthusiana (Spinulose Wood Fern)
Similar to most ferns of this genus, but the distinguishing feature is that the lower or most inner leaflet is the longest and then the others taper down in length towards the end of the frond or leaf. The fronds are lacey, bright green and delicate or finely toothed. This species will spread in cultivation but should be protected from the wind. • Perennial • 1-3 feet • Shade • Sandy and loamy woodland acidic soils • Habitat: Rich, moist and wet woods

Dryopteris cristata  (Crested Wood Fern)   
This fern has many of the same characteristics of other Dryopteris species. Also known as Narrow Swamp Fern, it has a tall, upright structure that is brittle and sensitive to wind. The dark green leaves are leathery and are somewhat evergreen. It is tolerant of deep shade and prefers a wet, cool environment. • Perennial • 16-30 inches • Shade • Sandy and loamy woodland acidic soils • Habitat: Rich, moist and wet woods and swamps  

Dryopteris goldiana (Goldie�s Wood Fern)
A tall, wide magnificent fern that has an imposing presence in the woodland landscape. The largest species of Dryopteris, this fern has a bold texture but is moderately slow growing. The leaves turn yellow in the fall. Perennial 3-4 feet  Sun to partial shade Moist to wet soil

Dryopteris marginalis  (Marginal Wood Fern) 
Unique among the Dryopteris species by the large spore sacks on the underside of the leathery leaves. This fern is truly evergreen throughout the winter and will tolerate browsing by rabbits and deep shade. It prefers deep, rocky or stony soil and will tolerate moderately dry conditions. This fern does not spread and is best appreciated as an individual specimen. • Perennial • 16-24 inches • Shade • Rocky, gravelly woodland soils  • Habitat: Rocky ledges, bluffs and crevices of moist woodlands

Echinacea purpurea (Eastern Purple Coneflower)
This wonderful plant, native to the U.S. mid-west, has showy pink-purple flowers with a burnished copper coloured centre.  Hummingbirds love the nectar in the summer and later on, small birds enjoy the seeds.  The oil from the root is used for boosting the immune system and also is reputed to have strong aphrodisiac properties. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Sun to partial  shade • Average  soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Meadows and prairies
 

Equisetum variegatum (Variegated Horsetail)
Horsetails are an ancient and primitive plant family related to ferns. An unusual plant with dark, evergreen erect stems with furrowed ridges. Tolerant of acidic soil. Would provide an unusual and striking texture along a pond or water feature where water is seeping.  Spreads primarily vegetatively and also by spores in mid summer. Perennial • 8-12 inches • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Produces spores rather than flowers. Habitat: Sandy lakeshores and riverbanks, fens and wet meadows
 

Erigeron pulchellus (Robins Plantain)
A member of the Daisy family, Robin�s Plantain has pink flower heads borne on long stems over wide, hairy, basal leaves. Spreads by runners to form colonies and makes an attractive ground cover. Would make a welcome addition to a sunny rock garden. Perennial • 6-12 inches • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Fields, open woods, streambanks
 

Eryngium yuccifolium (Rattlesnake Master)
A striking member of the Parsley family, and resembling the succulent Yucca plant, this unusual species produces thick, bluish/green fleshy leaves with spines along the edges. The bloom is also unusual in that it is spherical and also bluish/white in colour. Provides a nice accent in the prairie garden. Drought tolerant. A native of the U.S. midwest. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun • Dry soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Dry prairies, open woods and meadows

 

Eupatorium maculatum (Joe-pye Weed)
Lance-shaped leaves are arranged in whorls, topped in late summer with huge round-topped panicles of mauve-purple flowers. Excellent nectar plants for butterflies. One of the most distinctive and beautiful wildflowers of mid-summer. Nice as a cut flower. Perennial • 3-6 feet • Sun, part sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows
 

Eupatorium perfoliatum (Boneset)
A close relative to Joe-pye Weed, Boneset produces showy clusters of tiny white flowers. It is a good companion for Joe-Pye weed, Asters and Goldenrods in wet meadows, and provides sustenance for birds and butterflies. It has been used as a  remedy for colds, fever, broken bones and as a tonic. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms Aug to Sept. Habitat: Marshes, wet meadows, pond edges
 

Eupatorium rugosum  (White Snakeroot)
An attractive woodland native.  The airy clusters of fuzzy white flowers can be a nice addition to the late summer and fall blooming garden. Attracts Monarch butterflies. This can be an aggressive plant and is a valued species in woodland restoration. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Partial to full shade • Average soil • Blooms Sept to Oct. Habitat: Deciduous woodlands
                                                                 

Fragaria virginiana  (Wild Strawberry)
Relative of the domestic Strawberry, white flower clusters give rise to small, red, juicy fruit. Spreads by runners. Excellent ground cover for poor soil conditions. Perennial • 3-6 inches • Sun • Average to poor soil • Blooms April to May. Habitat: Meadows and open woodlands
  

Gentiana clausa (Bottle Gentian)
Beautiful blue/ violet flowers adorn this plant in the late summer and early fall. The flowers are funnel shaped and closed at the top, while the leaves are slender and pointed. A delight both in colour and bloom time. Limited quantities.  Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun to filtered sun • Moist to average loam soil • Blooms August to October.  Habitat: Moist open woods & meadows
 

Geranium maculatum (Wild Geranium)           
Delicate wildflower of moist woodlands and forest edges. Forms a mound of deeply lobed medium green leaves that send up thin, leafy stems of 5-petaled pink flowers in the spring. An ideal compact plant for the woodland garden with attractive foliage.
Perennial • 14-18 inches • Shade to part sun • Moist to average soil • Blooms May
Habitat: Deciduous woods & clearings
                 
 

Geum macrophyllum (Large-leaved Avens)
An interesting member of the Rose family, G. macrophyllum has hairy stems and roundish, finely-toothed, 3-lobed leaves. The terminal leaf is largest. Yellow flowers appear in early summer. Seeds form spherical heads. Tolerates clay soil. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Part shade/part sun • Rich, moist soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Moist woods and thickets
 

Geum rivale (Purple Avens)           
Nodding cup-shaped flowers with yellow petals and purple sepals rise above the foliage. A hardy, interesting plant for a bog garden. Intolerant of shade but adaptable to all soils, including clay. Has a medicinal history as a tonic, stomachic, and a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Full sun • Moist soil • Blooms May to July • Habitat: Swamps and wet meadows                 
 

 

Geum triflorum (Prairie Smoke)
Named for the atmospheric effect of the thin, furry dark red styles which elongate after the flower is pollinated, appearing like little puffs of smoke. This compact plant has knobby pink flowers in late spring and the rosettes of leaves are semi-evergreen. It is an ideal plant for hot, dry drought conditions, and very showy when planted en masse. Perennial • 8-10 inches • Sun • Dry, well drained soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Prairies and dry woods

 


Helenium autumnale  (Sneezeweed)
This tall, stunning plant has wing-like leaves that extend down to the base of the stalk. The flowers are vibrant yellow, resembling daisies and are excellent for cutting. The common name is derived because historically the dried herb has been used to produce snuff, and is not a reference to hay fever. Provides food for birds and butterflies. Toxic to cattle. Perennial • 3-5 feet • Full sun • Moist Soil, clay tolerant • Blooms August to September Habitat: Moist meadows and shorelines



 

 

Helianthus divaricatus (Woodland Sunflower)
This is a charming sturdy native plant with cheery yellow flowers.  Does well in dry areas. Attracts birds and butterflies. Good for naturalizing and can be aggressive. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Average-dry soil • Blooms Aug to Sept. Habitat: Open woodlands, edges and meadows

 

Helianthus giganteus  (Tall Wild Sunflower)
Yellow flower heads are borne on rough purplish stems late in the season. Leaves lance-shaped. Attracts birds and butterflies. A towering garden focal point in the fall. Perennial • 6-10 feet • Sun • Moist to average soil • Blooms August to October. Habitat: Swamps, moist meadows, thickets
  

Helianthus grosseserratus  (Saw-toothed Sunflower)
A very tall, rhizomatous Sunflower of low, wet places that grows to produces broad, indented leaves and yellow flowers. The species is believed to be a hybrid with another Sunflower, likely H. salicifolius and likely native only to the U.S. midwest. Attracts butterflies & birds. Perennial • 8-12 feet • Sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms Aug to Oct. Habitat: Damp prairies, moist meadows & low, wet places

Heliopsis helianthoides (Oxeye)
Also known as False Sunflower. This long-blooming species is adaptable to many growing conditions and soil types, including clay. It can be aggressive, but is valuable to pollinators and is useful as a cut flower. Perennial • 3-5 feet • Sun to partial shade • Dry to moist soil • Yellow flowers July to August Habitat: Open, dry woodlands & thickets

Hepatica acutiloba (Sharp-lobed Hepatica)
A species of high quality in the woodland understorey. This compact plant has thick waxy leaves that persist almost evergreen throughout the winter. The whitish/pink/pale blue flowers are among the very first wildflowers to bloom in early spring. Adds interest to the woodland garden early in the season along with Bloodroot and Dicentra species. Perennial • 6-8 inches • Shade to part sun • Rich, moist soil • Blooms April • Habitat: Rich, deciduous woods

Heuchera richardsonii  (Alum Root)    
A compact and attractive plant for the front of the border. Tiny greenish/white flowers appear atop bare stems in June. The leaves are similar to Maples, dark green and clustered at the ground like a rosette. The herb has historically been used to treat sore throat.  Drought tolerant. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to sandy dry to semi-moist soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Prairies & dry open woods
 

Hydrophyllum canadense  (Broad-leaved Waterleaf)  
A taller and bolder looking relative of H.virginianum with broad, maple-like leaves. Forms colonies on the forest floor. Small whitish flowers with tinges of purple and pink appear in late spring but primarily this species is valued as a ground cover of rich deciduous woodlands. The young leaves and roots are edible and were used in times of scarcity. Perennial • 8-24 inches • Shade to part sun • Moist but well-drained rich soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Rich deciduous woods                 
 

 

Hydrophyllum virginianum  (Virginia Water-leaf)
Woodland perennial with white to lavender bell-shaped flowers. Coarsely toothed pinnate leaves bear silvery variegation in spring, which fades as the leaves mature. An important species in the deciduous woodlands of Ontario and a good ground cover. Perennial • 12-16 inches • Part sun to  shade • Moist soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Moist woods and clearings

 

Hymenoxys acaulis  (Lakeside Daisy)
Rare and endangered species in our range, naturally occurring on the alvars of Manitoulin Island. Tolerant of extremely dry conditions. Extremely showy and compact but with large yellow flowers appearing in late spring. Would make an excellent addition to a rockery or garden edge. Nursery propagated only. Limited quantities available. Perennial • 4-8 inches • Full sun • Dry to average rocky/sandy calcareous soil • Blooms in June • Habitat: Alvars, shorelines & dry, open meadows

Hypericum pyramidatum  (Great St.John’s-wort)   
A large, branching herbaceous plant. The large eye-catching flowers (1-2 inches) are soft yellow with a substantial cluster of fuzzy stamens in the centre. Tolerant of clay soils. Produces the largest flowers of any Hypericum in Ontario. Hypericum has demonstrated herbal properties to treat depression, skin problems and as a calmative. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Sun • Moist soil • Blooms June to August • Habitat: Meadows and streambanks

Iris lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris)
A great dwarf Iris for rockeries. This species has broad arching leaves and dainty, miniature fringed blooms of a lavender/blue colour. Nationally rare and a protected species, occurring along the Bruce Peninsula. Nursery propagated only. Limited quantities. Perennial • 4-6 inches • Full sun • Well drained sandy soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Rocky, sandy and gravelly shorelines

Iris versicolor (Wild Blue-flag)
Produces bold, sword-like foliage and blue-violet flowers, making it a focal point in a pond landscape. Used to treat vomiting, heartburn, gastritis, enteritis, liver and gall- bladder ailments, and migraines. A staple species for wetland restoration. Attracts birds. Perennial • 3-4 feet • Sun to light shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms June. Habitat: Shores, swamps and wet meadows

 

Jeffersonia diphylla  (Twinleaf)
This relative of Bloodroot has unusual bold leaves divided lengthwise into two leaflets which give this plant its common name. The white 8-petaled flowers appear briefly, later producing unusually shaped seed pods. A good planting companion for Trilliums and ferns. Perennial • 8-12 inches • Shade • Rich, well drained calcareous soil • Blooms May • Habitat: Rich, deciduous woodlands, typically on limestone

Laportea canadensis (Wood Nettle)
The long leaf petioles and mist-like whitish green flowers give an overall appearance of daintiness and delicacy.  But beware of the stinging hairs along the stems! Great for woodland gardens and considered the best Nettle for cooked greens, soup and tea. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Partial to full shade • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Moist woodlands

Lespedeza capitata  (Round-headed Bush Clover)
This member of the Pea family is useful in restoration projects for nitrogen fixing properties and for attracting pollinators. Flowers are purplish/white and appear in late summer. Drought tolerant. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Dry open woods, sand dunes and prairies

Liatris cylindracea (Slender Blazing Star)
The most compact of all the Liatris species that we offer and historically the only one that was widely distributed across southern Ontario. Widely used by restorationists this drought tolerant plant produces small feathery purple blooms along its short stems. Blends well with and provides contrast for most other prairie species. Perennial • 8-18 inches • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Prairies & dry meadows
 


 

Liatris spicata (Spiked Blazing Star)
A spectacular addition to any garden to contrast the many species that produce yellow flowers in mid-summer. The tall, slender purple bloom spikes are highly prized as cut flowers and a favorite of butterflies, including the Monarch. The root has been used as a diuretic and to treat sore throat and gonorrhea. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Full sun • Moist to average soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Moist meadows & prairies
 

Lilium canadense (Wild Yellow Canada Lily)
Very similar to L. michiganense but with yellow flowers being more common and the petals of the downward hanging blooms do not bend as far back. Would make an interesting focal point in a wetland or bog garden. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July
Habitat: Moist meadows, wetlands

Lilium michiganense (Michigan Lily)
A jewel in a moist shady garden or alongside a pond, this native Lily produces whorled leaves along its tall stem. The bloom is a deep orange colour with brown spots and the petals curve back like the Turk�s Cap Lily. Perennial bulb • 3-6 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Moist meadows & wetlands
 

Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower)
Easily recognized by its stunning spike-shaped cardinal red flower which blooms in the late summer and fall, this unique species grows naturally on stream banks and in damp meadows. An excellent accent plant for a pond edge or a low, damp area of the garden. Has been used to treat nervous disorders. Attracts hummingbirds & butterflies. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Sun • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Wet meadows, edges of streams & swamps
 

 

Lobelia siphilitica (Great Blue, Giant Lobelia)
A definite desirable for fall garden border colour.  Blue flowers cover the thick large spike making a dramatic autumn showing.  Though poisonous in excessive doses the root is used in homeopathy for its purgative effects. Attracts hummingbirds. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Full to partial sun • Average to moist soil • Blooms Sept to Oct. Habitat: Open woodlands, edges and meadows

 

Lupinus perennis (Wild Lupine)
Our native Lupine has medium gray-green leaves and wide spikes of blue-violet pea-like flowers appear in late spring. This plant provides food for the larvae of several blue butterflies, including the rare Karner Blue. Excellent nectar flower. Fixes nitrogen, and in prairie ecosystems, is one of the first species to flourish after fire. Useful for meadows, xeriscaping and  rock gardens.  Prefers a sand-based soil, not clay and is tolerant of slightly acidic soil. It is not a long-lived perennial but easily self-sows. Perennial • 24-30 inches • Sun, part sun • Well drained soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Prairies, savannas, dry, open woods, clearings, barrens
  

Maianthemum canadense (Canada Mayflower)
This compact understorey species forms colonies and will thrive even in deep shade. Canada Mayflower produces wide, dark glossy green heart-shaped leaves and clusters of small lily-like white flowers in the spring which yield red berries attractive to songbirds.  Produces a lovely groundcover under evergreen trees.  Tolerant of acidic soil & Cedar. Perennial • 6-8 inches • Shade • Rich, moist soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Shady woodlands

Maianthemum racemosum  (False Solomon�s Seal)
A graceful member of the Lily family with long arching stems producing opposite oblong leaves and a cluster of small, white blooms at the end. Red berries appear later in summer which are eaten by birds. Tolerant of acid soil. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Shade to part sun • Rich, moist soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Woodlands

Maianthemum stellatum  (Starflower False Solomon�s Seal)
Similar in structure to M. racemosum but with shorter and narrower leaves and less floriferous. Will spread to form colonies as an interesting ground cover. Small clusters of white star-shaped flowers appear at the ends of the stems in late May to early June. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Part shade to full sun • Moist soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Moist, sandy woods, meadows and shores                 

Mertensia virginica   (Virginia Blue Bells)
A much sought-after beautiful woodland plant that produces gorgeous blue flowers in the early spring.  This ephemeral goes dormant in the summer. Blends well in a woodland garden with Uvularia, Thalictrum, Tiarella and many Ferns. The unusual blue colour and early bloom features make it a valuable addition to any shade garden. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Shade to part shade • Rich, moist soil • Blooms April to May • Habitat: Rich, deciduous woodlands

Mimulus ringens (Monkey Flower)
In late summer violet flowers appear with spots of yellow near the centre, and resemble a monkey�s face. Desirable plant for its long bloom period and blends well with Turtlehead, Giant Lobelia, and Cardinal Flower. A good addition for a pond edge. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Moist soil • Blooms Aug. Habitat: Marshes, swamps & wet meadows

 

Mitella diphylla  (Bishop’s Cap / Miterwort)
A compact and delicate groundcover, similar in appearance to Foamflower but smaller in stature. Erect flower stalks rise from a single pair of leaves which produces rows of tiny white flowers in late spring. Member of the Saxifrage family. A good addition to a woodland garden and a good companion to ferns, and many other woodland plants. Perennial • 6-10 in • Shade • Moist soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Rich, deciduous woodlands                 
 

Monarda fistulosa (Wild Bergamot)
Extremely popular plant for prairie and dry meadow gardens. The jester hat-like flowers are a lavender-purple colour and, along with the leaves, make a great mint tea.  At one time, a treatment for respiratory ailments was made from the oil.  Attracts butterflies, bees and hummingbirds.  An important species in prairie restoration. Drought tolerant. Perennial • 2-4 feet • Full sun-partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to Aug. Habitat: Prairies and meadows

 


Oenothera biennis  (Common Evening-primrose)
Long lasting yellow blooms atop a reddish stem, this drought tolerant biennial self-seeds prodigiously, thriving in sunny sites with nutrient-poor, gravelly or sandy soil. Has been used as a remedy for coughs, skin irritations and depression. Biennial • 3-4 feet • Sun to part shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to September • Habitat: Meadows, prairies & roadsides


Oenothera missourensis  (Missouri Primrose)
A compact, sprawling ground cover for fully exposed, dry, sandy or rocky sites. Produces relatively large yellow blooms which are short-lived but replenished continuously for weeks. Not a native of Ontario but of the great plains of the U.S.  Perennial • 8-12 inches • Sun • Dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Dry prairies, rocky barrens in calcareous soil
 

Oenothera perennis (Small Sundrops)
A close relative of the Evening Primrose, 4-petaled yellow flowers open during the day, hence their common name. A compact manageable species good for a sunny rockery. One of the first species to emerge after an agricultural field was abandoned on our farm. Perennial • 6-12 inches • Sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Fields, meadows, open woods

 

Onoclea sensibilis  (Sensitive Fern)
Unlike its name suggests this Fern is a robust species naturally found in low, wet places. It prefers rich, organic soil, even tolerating somewhat acidic soil. The leaflets are bolder, wider and less sharply indented than most ferns. Spreads by rhizomes and will soon form a generous colony. Fruiting fronds provide winter interest.  Perennial Fern• 1-2 feet • Sun • Wet to average soil • Spreads by rhizomes and fall spores.  Habitat: Swamps, wet open woods & meadows

Osmorhiza claytonia (Sweet Cicely)
This understorey woodland species has alternate compound toothed leaves. All parts of the plant when bruised are fragrant and sweet resembling Anise. Small white blooms appear in spring later producing barbed seeds which stick to animal fur to assist in their dispersal. The root of Sweet Cicely has been used to treat sore throat, skin afflictions such as sores, boils & cuts and also as a soothing eye wash. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Shade to part sun • Moist soil, most soil types • Blooms June • Habitat: Moist woods
 

Parthenium integrifolium (Wild Quinine)
This member of the Aster family, is sometimes referred to as American Feverfew. Its flowers are hard, tiny, and white, clumped together in a large cluster and extremely long lasting. The leaves are quite large some up to 12 inches, with a rough surface. An interesting addition to any garden with a bold, striking texture. Drought tolerant. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Prairies, dry open woods & meadows

 

Penstemon digitalis (Foxglove Beardtongue)
A popular introduction to native plants with traditional exotic gardeners, the bountiful Fox-Glove-like blooms of pure white dazzle the eye in early summer.  The foliage remains a rich deep forest green all season. Attracts hummingbirds. Perennial • 3-4 feet • Full sun/part shade • Average to moist soil • Blooms June to July Habitat: Meadows and woodland edges

    

Penstemon hirsutus (Hairy Beardtongue)
A small more delicate cousin of
P. digitalis with white lipped, light purple/pink  trumpet�shaped flowers.  Compact, long-blooming and excellent for dry rocky areas and naturalizing. Drought tolerant. Used extensively in prairie restoration plantings. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Full sun/partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to Aug. Habitat: Dry meadows and prairies
 


Phlox divaricata (Wild Blue Phlox)
This compact, sprawling bushy groundcover is indispensible for woodland gardens in the spring. Many fragrant small 5-petaled pastel blue flowers appear in mid spring. Makes a good companion for other woodland plants such as Foamflower, Wild Geranium and Trillium. Perennial • 12-14 inches • Shade to part sun • Moist soil • Blooms May • Habitat: Rich deciduous woods

 

Physostegia virginiana (Obedient Plant)
The blooms of this plant stay obediently for a time in whatever position they are placed. The flowers are a whitish to pale rose colour and grow in a spike form resembling a Snapdragon. A valuable addition to the garden in late season.  Attracts hummingbirds. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Sun to part sun • Moist to average soil • Blooms Aug to Sept. Habitat: Moist thickets, prairies & meadows

 

Podophyllum peltatum  (Mayapple / Mandrake)
Mayapple spreads rapidly once established to form a dense groundcover of flat, umbrella-like leaves. A solitary white flower appears under the leaves in spring, later forming a single, pale yellow berry. The foliage dies back mid to late summer. Mayapple is poisonous but its powerful compounds have been used as an insecticide, to heal warts, stimulate glandular secretions and to treat syphilis and cancer. Perennial • 12-18 inches • Shade to part sun • Rich, moist to average soil • Blooms May • Habitat: Rich, moist deciduous woods and pastures   

Polygonatum pubescens  (Hairy Solomon�s Seal)
A member of the Lily family which gets its name from tiny hairs on the veins underneath the oblong leaves. Rows of delicate yellow-green bell-like flowers hang underneath the arching stems, giving an elegant & classic appearance. The rootstock has been used for poultices, women�s complaints, a remedy for Poison Ivy & a longevity tonic. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Deep shade to part sun • Rich, moist organic soil • Blooms May to June • Habitat: Deciduous woods

 

Potentilla anserina (Silvery Cinquefoil)
This prostrate species has compound basal leaves with sharply toothed leaflets, silvery beneath. Silvery Cinquefoil sends up yellow flowers and leaves on separate stalks and spreads by runners.  Aggressive groundcover. Has been used as a remedy for diarrhea,  skin problems, mouth and throat sores and to relieve cramps. Valuable in restoration. Perennial • 6-10 inches • Sun • Average to moist soil • Blooms June to September. Habitat: Moist to wet open places and shores          

  

Potentilla arguta (Tall Cinquefoil)
This member of the Rose family is extremely drought tolerant. The erect, hairy stems, sharply-toothed, compound leaves and clusters of creamy-white flowers add interest to the prairie garden. A good source of nectar for insects. Has been used to control bleeding and to cure diarrhea. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Full/filtered sun • Dry to average sandy soil • Blooms June to Aug. Habitat: Prairies, dry meadows & sandy hills
 

Potentilla simplex (Old-field, Common Cinquefoil)
Excellent creeping native for dry and poor soils.  Looks similar to Wild Strawberry, but has yellow flowers.  Quite aggressive, therefore valued for restoration projects. Perennial •  6-10 inches • Full sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms June • Habitat: Meadows, prairies and roadsides

 

Prenanthes alba   (White Lettuce)
A broad, serrated leaved biennial of dry to moist deciduous woods.  Racemes of delicate nodding creamy flowers appear in late summer. Poultices of leaves have been used for insect and snake bites. Biennial • 18-50 inches •  Part sun to shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms  August to September. Habitat: Dry to moist woodlands
 

Primula mistassinica  (Dwarf Canadian Primrose)
An unusual and very tiny, delicate member of the Primrose family. Small pink flowers appear atop 4 inch stems in late spring. Would make an ideal addition to a small, intimate rock garden and a good candidate for a container garden. Perennial • 2-4 inches • Part shade to sun • Average to dry sandy soil • Blooms June • Habitat: Rocks, cliffs and gravelly shores
 

 

 

Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia Mountain-mint)
Delicate white flowers cluster on the tops of square stems. Aromatic leaves are narrow, lance-shaped. Virginia Mountain-mint is non-invasive, and flourishes with little care. Attracts bees and butterflies, including the Monarch. Has been used as a stimulant and tonic for convalescents. Excellent species for restoration and tolerates drought. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Sun to part sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Dry to moist prairies

 

Ratibida columnifera (Long-headed Coneflower)
More compact and earlier blooming than R. pinnata, this species has a flower that resembles a ballerina in that it has a long seed head and yellow flower petals that droop like a skirt.  It develops a taproot, making future divisions or transplanting difficult.  Not a native to Ontario, but the US midwest.  Makes a nice cut flower.  Drought tolerant. Attracts birds and butterflies. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms June to July. Habitat: Prairies & dry meadows
 

Ratibida pinnata  (Gray-headed Coneflower)
Long blooming, carefree, clumping species with handsome pinnate leaves. Stiffly erect to rounded outline, with drooping flowers of light yellow rays and short, rounded green cones changing to brown. Individual flowers are very long lasting and good for cutting. Good nectar source for butterflies. Drought tolerant. Self-sows. Used in restoration. Perennial • 3-4 feet • Sun • Dry to moist, well drained soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Dry prairies and meadows, often on limestone
 

Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)
A classic for any prairie or meadow planting.  The bright yellow flowers with deep brown centres are long-lasting and prolific.  A biennial, it can sometimes act as a perennial. The most commonly used forb species in prairie and meadow restorations. Biennial • 2-3 feet • Full sun to partial shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms July to Aug. Habitat: Meadows and prairies

 

 

Rudbeckia laciniata (Cut-leaved Coneflower)
Known also as Green-headed Coneflower, this stately perennial has deeply cut leaves and tall stems of drooping, informal blooms. The flowers are lemon yellow with a green disk and nice for cutting. Spreads slowly. Good nectar source for butterflies.  Perennial • 4-6 feet • Sun, part shade • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Moist, open places

  

Rudbeckia triloba (Thin-leaved Coneflower)
This is the longest and latest blooming Rudbeckia species in our growing region. It is a multi-branched plant with some of the lower and larger leaves being 3-lobed in structure. The flowers are smaller, short-petaled versions of the classic Brown-eyed Susan, are long lasting and are excellent for cutting. Attracts bees and butterflies and naturalizes well.  Perennial • 3-5 feet • Sun to part shade • Moist soil • Blooms August to October. Habitat: Moist, open woods & meadows
 

Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot)
Snow white flowers appear from the unfolding leaves at the first sign of a permanent thaw. The long-lasting saucer-shaped scalloped leaves are also beautiful, and make a good groundcover. Named for its dark red, knobby rhizomes filled with a thin crimson poisonous sap, it has been used as rouge by Native Americans, and medicinally as an expectorant, disinfectant, sedative, diuretic, emetic, stimulant, tonic and to treat skin problems. An essential species in a woodland garden.  Limited quantities available. Perennial • 6-12 inches • Part sun, shade • Moist, well drained soil • Blooms April. Habitat: Deciduous woods, floodplains, slopes
  

Sanguisorba canadensis (Canadian Burnet)
A rhizomatous wetland perennial with 7-15 toothed pinnate leaflets per leaf.  Dense, white flower spikes appear in mid to late summer. Member of the Rose family. Attracts many pollinators. Can be grown in an average garden with adequate moisture but may become invasive when grown in wetland conditions. Tolerant of all soil types including clay. Perennial • 2-5 feet • Full sun to part shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July to September • Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes and bogs

Silphium laciniatum   (Compass Plant)
Perhaps the most striking of all the Silphiums, the large, deeply indented leaves tend to orient themselves in a north-south direction. Numerous yellow flowers appear on lofty stems in late summer. First Nations have chewed the hardened sap like chewing gum and the rootstock has been used to cure fever, and as a tonic and expectorant. Attracts birds and butterflies. Perennial • 6-10 feet • Full sun • Average to dry soil • Blooms August to September • Habitat: Prairies & meadows

 

Silphium perfoliatum (Cup Plant)
Imposing mature plants provide an unmistakable vertical presence in the garden. Thick stems perforate the cup-like united leaves. The large yellow flowers are borne on 1-foot stems at the tops of the plants. Hummingbirds and butterflies are attracted to the nectar, while the seeds are favorites of goldfinches. Historically, this plant was a general medicinal agent, used for fevers, ulcers, liver and spleen problems, as a stimulant, antispasmotic and to treat general physical debility. Tolerant of clay soil and drought. Perennial • 6-8 feet • Sun/part sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Meadows, prairies, woodland edges

   

Silphium terebinthinaceum (Prairie Dock)
A cousin of Cup Plant, this equally imposing species has large, oval to heart-shaped basal leaves that resemble elephant�s ears. The tall flower stalks send up masses of bright yellow flowers.  Attracts much the same wildlife as
Silphium perfoliatum. Perennial • 5-8 feet • Sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Prairies and open woods
      

Sisyrinchium montanum (Blue-eyed Grass)
A tremendously popular native in spring plant sales.  This grass look-a-like is actually a tiny Iris.  The beautiful, dainty bright blue-purple blooms make it a must for the spring garden.  Looks captivating planted at the front of a border or along edges of walkways. Perennial • 6-12 inches • Full sun to partial shade • Average  soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat:  Meadows

 

Solidago bicolor   (Silverrod)
One of the only 2 white blooming species of Goldenrod, the other being S. ptarmacoides, Silverrod once established will require little in the way of care and minimal water. This unusual species produces blooms in long, cylindrical clusters and provides nectar to bees and butterflies.  Perennial • 12-30 inches • Sun • Dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Dry open woods & rocky slopes
 

Solidago caesia   (Blue-stemmed Goldenrod)  
This relatively short and compact Solidago along with S. flexicaulis is an ideal species for woodland restoration projects. Leaves are long, slender, toothed & pointed. Small clusters of yellow flowers appear in late summer at the axils and at the end of the bluish coloured stems. Attractive to pollinators. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Shade to part sun • Moist loamy to average soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Woodlands
 

Solidago flexicaulis (Zig-zag Goldenrod)
An airy spike of brillant yellow flowers top the zig-zag angled stem of this adapatable native plant.  A beautiful fall bloom and its ability to do well in dry shade make this a valued plant despite its aggressive nature. Useful in restoration and for difficult soil. Perennial • 1-3 feet • Partial to full shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August to Sept. Habitat: Dry, deciduous woodlands

 

Solidago nemoralis (Gray Goldenrod)
An attractive low ground cover with dusty silver-green paddle-shaped leaves and narrow, curved yellow flower heads on short stems in fall. Thrives in the poorest of soils. Once used medicinally to promote perspiration, and as a carminative. This drought tolerant species is a popular Goldenrod for prairie restoration and xeriscaping. Perennial • 1-2 feet • Sun, part sun • Dry, well drained soil • Blooms August to Sept. Habitat: Dry sandy soils in meadows, dunes and upland woods
 

Solidago ohioensis (Ohio Goldenrod)     
This Solidago species produces the largest flowers of all the Golden Rods. The leaves are lance-shaped, smooth and upward pointing. Yellow blooms appear in late summer which are beneficial to pollinators. Perennial • 2-3 feet • Full sun • Moist to wet calcareous soils of all types • Blooms August to September Habitat: Swamps, beaches, bogs, shores and other wet places

Solidago ptarmacoides (Upland White Goldenrod)
This goldenrod bears stiff, linear leaves, and flat-topped flower heads of white ray flowers. Rare in Ontario, except on the limestone pavements of the Bruce Peninsula and sandy soils to the north. Compact, sturdy and drought resistant. Attracts butterflies. Perennial • 10-12 inches • Sun • Well drained to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Sandy soils, prairies, alvars and limestone pavements

 

Solidago rigida ssp. rigida (Stiff, Hard-leaved Goldenrod)
The dark yellow flowers form a flat-topped cluster on this clump forming species.  Leaves clasp tightly to stem, hence the name hard-leaved.  Attractive fall bloomer, combining well with False Dragonhead.  Leaves used medicinally for haemorrhages. Perennial • 3-5 feet • Sun to partial  shade • Average to dry soil • Blooms August to Oct. Habitat: Meadows and prairies

 

Solidago rugosa   (Rough-stemmed Goldenrod)
One of the most common eastern grassland species. Stems and leaves are hairy or rough. Inflorescences are long and thin, like trails of fading fireworks. Naturalizes well, can be aggressive. Attracts bees and butterflies. Used often in restoration projects. Perennial • 3-6 feet • Sun, part sun • Moist to dry soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Fields, meadows, prairies

Taenidia integerrima   (Yellow Pimpernel)  
This interesting member of the Parsley family has a compound leaf structure divided into groups of three oval leaflets. The tiny, numerous bright yellow flowers are arranged in umbels and long lasting. Taenidia produces a taproot and is therefore not recommended for dividing or transplanting. Tolerant of clay soil. Endangered in many regions of North America.Perennial • 2-3 feet • Part sun to part shade • Average to dry soils of many kinds • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Open woods, rocky hillsides & slopes
 

 

Thalictrum dioicum (Early Meadow-rue)
This compact native is an important component of Ontario woodlands. The delicate texture of the tiny, maple-leaf shaped leaves and abundant, long drooping greenish-yellow flowers make this plant a good companion for such species as Wild Ginger, Trillium, Solomon�s Seal and many ferns. An early good source of pollen for bees. Perennial • 12-18 inches • Shade • Rich, moist, well-drained soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Deciduous woods
 

Thalictrum pubescens   (Tall Meadow-rue)
Towering stems with soft white flower plumes of threadlike stamens, this regal plant earns its other common name, King of the Meadow. Leaves are subdivided into rounded 3-lobed leaflets. Reasonably shade tolerant, naturalizes well in open wet areas. Perennial • 6-8 feet • Sun to shade • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July. Habitat: Woods, wet meadows, swamps and streambanks
 

Tiarella cordifolia (Foamflower)
Frothy white star-like flowers with conspicuous stamens are borne on thin spikes above  Maple-like leaves, creased along the main veins. Creates an impressive, quickly spreading  groundcover  for shady spots with a trailing habit. Tolerant of acid soil. Perennial • 6-10 inches • Part sun to shade • Moist soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Rich woods

 

Tovara virginiana   (Virginia Knotweed/Jumpseed)
A member of the Buckwheat family. Tall spikes of many tiny white flowers appear in late summer. Tovara will spread fairly quickly and can be aggressive, but is relatively easy to control. Great for fall interest and a good backdrop planting in a woodland garden. Perennial - 2-4 feet - Shade to part sun - Average soil - Blooms September • Habitat: Woods and thickets

Tradescantia ohiensis   (Ohio Spiderwort)
A versatile and smartly structured plant that will grow in a wide range of conditions and soils (clay to sand). Clusters of simple three-petalled, brilliant blue/violet flowers appear for an extended period in early summer. The long, folded narrow leaves are smooth and the general structure of the plant is similar to a Daylily. Attractive to butterflies. Perennial • 18-24 inches • Sun to light shade • Dry to moist soil • Blooms June to July • Habitat: Woodland edges, thickets, meadows and prairies

 

Trillium grandiflorum (White Trillium)
Our Provincial flower is in decline due to the proliferation of exotic Garlic Mustard which is invading our woodlands, and urban sprawl.  Aboriginals and early settlers used Trillium to treat rheumatism, cramps, skin diseases, dysentery and earache. Stock available from an authorized plant rescue.  Supplies limited. Perennial • 8-18 inches • Shade-part sun • Rich, moist, well-drained soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Deciduous woods
 

Triosteum aurantiancum   (Horse Gentian)
Member of the Honeysuckle family. Also known as Wild Coffee. Bold plant with large leaves. Purplish/red flowers appear at the base of the leaves at main stems in early summer - Produces orangy/red berries in the fall - Uncommon. Perennial - 4-8 inches - Shade to part shade - Rich to average soil - Blooms May to June

Uvularia grandiflora   (Large-flowered Bellwort)                           
Pale to medium yellow blooms dangle like bells from the upper leaf axils. Leaves are soft blue-green, broadly oval to oblong, turning a glowing soft yellow in the fall. Excellent for the shade garden and a good companion for Trilliums, Virginia Bluebells and Ferns. No longer as abundant in our threatened woodlands. Limited quantities available. Perennial • 12-18 inches • Part sun to part shade • Moist, rich, limey soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Rich deciduous woods in calcareous soil
 

Verbena hastata (Blue Vervain)
This tall perennial of wet places has lance-shaped, toothed leaves, and well-branched, strongly vertical spikes that bear small, dark blue-violet flowers. Self-seeds. Attracts bees, nectar plant for butterflies. Blue Vervain has been called a natural tranquilizer, as it was used for fevers and colds, and for insomnia.  It�s external use healed sores and wounds.  Most effective in mass plantings. Makes a nice, long-lasting cut flower. Perennial • 3-4 feet • Sun, part sun • Moist to wet soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Moist to wet meadows and prairies

 

Verbena stricta (Hoary Vervain)
Drought tolerant plant with strong stems. Oval, jaggedly toothed, 2-inch leaves and stems are covered with fine white hairs, giving the plants a gray-green cast. Small purplish flowers are borne on tall vertical spikes. Useful planted in masses in borders and for naturalizing. The blooms are showier than
V. hastata and make an excellent cut flower.  Used for prairie restoration and a very popular plant with butterflies. Biennial • 2-3 feet • Sun • Moderately moist to dry soil • Blooms July to August Habitat: Dry prairies and meadows
 

Vernonia altissima   (Tall Ironweed)
This towering plant, reaching heights of up to 8 feet, has leaves that are lance-shaped and finely toothed. The flower heads each have 13-30 purple flowers and appear in late summer & early fall. Tolerant of acidic & clay soils. An excellent plant to attract butterflies. The rootstock has been used as a bitter tonic to stimulate the appetite & to purify the blood.  This Ontario native, not commonly available, makes a bold, welcome addition to the landscape. Perennial • 5�8 feet • Sun • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat:  Moist meadows, wet open woods
 

Vernonia noveboracensis   (New York Ironweed)
Very similar to Tall Ironweed, but somewhat shorter, less stemmy and more compact. The flower heads on this plant are long, and each contain 30-50 flowers. Not a native to Ontario, but along the northeast coastal areas of the United States and further inland.  Attractive for its late season purple flowers and a favourite of butterflies. Perennial • 3-6 feet • Sun • Moist soil • Blooms August to September. Habitat: Moist meadows, open wet woods & marshes
 

Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's Root)
A must for wildflower gardens.  Attractive whorled leaves topped by pointy tipped tapering spikes of white blossoms.  Easy to grow plus flower clusters remain showy for weeks. Attracts butterflies. Complements many prairie species. A current favourite. Perennial • 3-5 feet • Sun to partial shade • Average soil • Blooms July to August. Habitat: Moist prairies & meadows

 

Viola pensylvanica   (Smooth Yellow Violet)
Similar to V. pubescens but the stems and leaves are smooth and it prefers a moister, richer soil. Yellow flowers appear in late spring and it will spread to produce an impressive ground cover in a woodland setting. Perennial • 4-12 inches • Shade to part sun • Moist, rich  soil • Blooms late May to early June • Habitat: Rich, moist deciduous woods                 
 

Viola pubescens   (Downy Yellow Violet)
The leaves of this Violet are heart shaped, about as broad as long and downy hairy beneath.  It has a five-petaled yellow flower and is an adaptable ground cover in most dry shady spots. V. pubescens is a good companion for many other woodland plants and spreads by rhizomes and by seed.  Perennial • 6-12 inches • Shade • Average soil • Blooms May to June. Habitat: Dry, rich deciduous woods
 

Waldsteinia fragarioides (Barren Strawberry)
A member of the Rose family, Barren Strawberry�s semi-evergreen basal leaves are divided into three leaflets, similar to its true strawberry relatives. Prolific 5-petaled bright yellow flowers are borne on short branching stems. A good ground cover, this  useful woodland wildflower spreads from underground rhizomes. Combines well with Foamflower, Wild Ginger, Wild Blue Phlox and Twinleaf. Does not produce a strawberry as the name might suggest. Tolerant of acidic soil. Perennial • 3-6 inches • Part sun to part shade • Moist to dry soil • Blooms May. Habitat: Woods and clearings

 

Zizia aurea (Golden Alexanders)
This amazing member of the Parsley family produces flat-topped clusters of lemon yellow flowers which resemble those of Queen Ann�s Lace. Does well in any exposure. A smart-looking plant that is long-blooming and tolerates acidic soil. Attracts butterflies and the dried seed heads are attractive for the balance of the growing season. Perennial � 2-3 feet � Sun to shade � Average to dry soil � Blooms May to June. Habitat: Meadows, shores, moist woods & thickets